Das Haus der Deutschen Kunst

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013

Hitler Speaks at the
Das Haus der Deutschen Kunst
München
Tag der Deutschen Kunst – München – 1939

Das Haus der Deutschen Kunst was constructed from 1933 to 1937 following plans of architect Paul Ludwig Troost as the Third Reich’s first monumental structure of National Socialist architecture.
 The museum was opened in 18 July 1937 as a showcase for Germany’s finest art.
Tag der Deutschen Kunst – München – 1939
The inaugural exhibition was the ‘Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung’ (“Great German art exhibition”), which was intended as an edifying contrast to the condemned modern art on display in the concurrent ‘Degenerate Art Exhibition’.
On 15 and 16 October 1939, the ‘Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung’, inside the Haus der Deutschen Kunst, was complemented by the monumental ‘Tag der Deutschen Kunst’ celebration of “2,000 years of Germanic culture” where draped floats (one of them carrying a 5 meter tall golden Reichsadler) and thousands of party activists, in historical costumes, paraded down Prinzregentenstraße for hours in the presence of Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley, Reinhard Heydrich, and many other high-ranking members of the government, with minor events taking place in the Englischer Garten nearby.
Haus der Deutschen Kunst – München
Main Fascade – Prof Paul Troost

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Prof Paul Ludwig Troost
Paul Ludwig Troost (17 August 1878 – 21 January 1934), born in Elberfeld, was a German architect. An extremely tall, spare-looking, reserved Westphalian with a close-shaven head, Troost belonged to a school of architects, Peter Behrens and Walter Gropius who, even before 1914, reacted sharply against the highly ornamental Jugendstil, and advocated a restrained, classic architectural approach, almost devoid of ornament, combining Spartan traditionalism with elements of modernity.
He became Hitler’s foremost architect, whose neo-classical style became the official architecture of the Third Reich.
His work filled Hitler with enthusiasm, and he planned and built state and municipal edifices throughout Germany.
In the autumn of 1933, he was commissioned to rebuild and refurnish the Chancellery residence in Berlin. 
Hitler and Frau Troost
at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst
Prof Paul Ludwig Troost
Along with other architects, Troost planned and built State and municipal edifices throughout the country, including new administrative offices, social buildings for workers and bridges across the main highways.
One of the many structures he planned before his death was the ‘House of German Art’ in Munich, intended to be a great temple for a “true, eternal art of the German people”. Hitler’s relationship to Troost was that of a pupil to an admired teacher.
Hitler frequently declared, according to Speer, that “he first learned what architecture was from Troost”‘.
The architect’s death on 21 January 1934, after a severe illness, was a painful blow, but Hitler remained close to his widow Gerdy Troost, whose architectural taste frequently coincided with his own, which made her “a kind of arbiter of art in Munich.”
Hitler posthumously awarded Troost the German National Prize for Art and Science in 1936.
Haus der Deutschen Kunst – München
Interior – Prof Paul Troost
Haus der Deutschen Kunst – München
Main Fascade – Prof Paul Troost
Haus der Deutschen Kunst – München
Main Fascade – Prof Paul Troost
Ehrentempel – Königsplatz – München – Paul Troost
The Ehrentempel (“honor temples”) were two structures in Munich, erected in 1935,
housing the sarcophagi of the sixteen members of the party
who had been killed in the failed Munich Putsch.
The martyrs of the movement were in heavy black sarcophagi
in such a way as to be exposed to rain and sun from the open roof.
The pedestals of the temples are seventy feet wide.
The columns of the structures each extended twenty-three feet.
The combined weight of the sarcophagi was over 2,900 pounds.
Ehrentempel – Königsplatz – München – Paul Troost
Ehrentempel – Königsplatz – München – Paul Troost

click below for more information and images
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
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Zeitungsleser
Otto Kirchner (1887 – 1960)
Bäuerliche Venus – 1939
Sepp Hilz
Bäuerliche Venus – 1939
Sepp Hilz
Die rote Halskette – 1942
Sepp Hilz
Eitelkeit – 1940
Sepp Hilz
Die vier Elemente – The Four Elements
Adolf Ziegler
Die vier Elemente – The Four Elements
Adolf Ziegler
Working Maidens – 1940
Leopold Schmutzler
Der Fuehrer Spricht – 1939
Paul Matthias Padua
Bauernfamilie
Adolf Wissel
Erbhofbauer 
Liegender Frauenakt – Reclining Female Nude
Ernst Liebermann
Dianas Ruhe – Diana’s Rest
Ivo Saliger
Frauenakten – Female Nudes
Ivo Saliger
Weiblicher Akt
Leopold Schmutzler
Weiblicher Akt im Meer
Karl Truppe 
Mädchen mit einer Sonnenblume
Karl Truppe
Leda und der Schwan
Paul Matthias Padua
Und ihr habt doch Gesiegt
Paul Hermann – 1942
Alter Kämpfer – 9th November 1923
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Bereitschaft
Arno Breker
Consider Arno Breker’s Readiness.
A muscular male nude with a body seemingly perfect.
Its debt to classical sculpture suggests that the ideal it represents is an eternal one, to which we must aspire but that we may not judge, while its proportions suggest a calm but obvious fierceness.
Such unblemished forms are stripped of all individualizing defects, – stripped of their singularity as specific humans to which the viewer might respond. Instead, they are archetypes, with abstract titles like ‘Readiness’ or ‘Comradeship’, “worthy” of Hitler’s call for an “eternal” art that would express immutable Aryan values.
Adolf Wamper
Genius des Siegers
Danziger Freiheitskämpfer
Josef Thorak
Josef Thorak (7 February 1889 in Salzburg – 26 February 1952) was an Austrian-German sculptor.
In 1933 Thorak joined Arno Breker as one of the two “official sculptors” of the Third Reich.
In his studio outside Munich, Thorak worked on statues intended to represent the folk-life of the German Volk.
These works tended to be heroic in scale, up to 65 feet (20 meters) in height.
His official works from this period included a number of sculptures at the Berlin Olympic Stadium of 1936.
Some expressionist influences can be noticed in his neoclassical style.
Männliche und weibliche Akt
Josef Thorak
Murcur
Fritz Klimsch
Eos
Arno Brteker
Kniend Krieger – 1937
Richard Scheibe
Nach dem Kampf
Hans Bühler
Bauer
Jacob Wilhelm Fehrle
Männlicher Akt
Fritz Klimsch
Männer in der Ausbildung
Anton Grauel
Der Stürmer
Arno Breker
Arno Breker (July 19, 1900 – February 13, 1991) was a German sculptor, best known for his public works in the Third Reich, which were endorsed by the authorities as the antithesis of degenerate art.
He was born in Elberfeld, and died in Düsseldorf.
The neoclassical nature of his work, with titles like ‘Comradeship’, ‘Torchbearer’, and ‘Sacrifice’, typified National Socialist ideals, and suited the characteristics of the architecture of the Third Reich.
The proportions of his figures, the highly colouristic treatment of his surfaces (the strong contrasts between dark and light accents), and the melodramatic tension of their musculatures invites comparison with the Italian Mannerist sculptors of the 16th century.
This Mannerist tendency to Breker’s neoclassicism may suggest close affinities to expressionist tendencies in German Modernism.
Der arischen Rasse
Arno Breker
Kameradschaft
Arno Breker
Der Racher
Arno Breker
Der Bannertrager
Arno Breker
Sterbende Krieger
Arno Breker
Abfahrt zur Schlacht
Arno Breker
Kampf
Arno Breker
Das Urteil des Paris
Arno Breker
Du und Ich
Arno Breker
Euridice und Orpheus
Arno Breker
Daphne und Apollo
Arno Breker
Thanatos
Arno Breker
Arischen Menschen
Arno Breker
Heroischen Kopf
Arno Breker
Richard Wagner
Arno Breker
Adolf Hitler
Arno Breker
Adolf Hitler
Arno Breker
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013

The Sculpture of Arno Breker

ARNO BREKER
   
Sculptor

 
  
At the 1933 Nürnberg Reichsparteitag, the new Chancellor, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the dawn of an era of ‘New Art’ – and instituted the Reichskulturkammer (RKK – Reich Chamber of Culture) to oversee the cultural life of Das Dritte Reich, (the Third Reich).
The Reichskulturkammer was headed by Dr. Paul Joseph Göbbels.
The Reichskulturkammer was to control all aspects of culture, and this included the fine arts, applied arts,  industrial design, sculpture, architecture and film.
‘Germany wants again a “German Art,” and this art shall and will be of eternal value, as are all truly creative values of a people.
Should this art, however, again lack this eternal value for our people, then indeed it will mean that it also has no higher value today
When, therefore, the cornerstone of this building was laid, it was with the intention of constructing a temple, not for a so-called modern art, but for a true and everlasting German art, that is, better still, a House for the art of the German people.
It is therefore imperative for the artist to erect monuments, not so much to a period, but to his people.
For time is changeable, years come and go.
Anything born of and thriving on a certain epoch alone would perish with it.
And not only all which had been created before us would fall victim to this mortality, but also what is being created today or will be created in the future.
But the National-Socialists know of only one mortality, and that is the mortality of the people itself:
As long as a people exists, however, it is the fixed pole in the flight of fleeting appearances.
It is the quality of being and lasting permanence.
And, indeed, for this reason, art as an expression of the essence of this being, is an eternal monument.’
Adolf Hitler

  

S C U L P T O R   T O   T H E   F Ü H R E R

Arno Breker (July 19, 1900 – February 13, 1991) was a German sculptor, best known for his public works in Germany, which were endorsed by the authorities as the antithesis of “degenerate art”.
He was born in Elberfeld, now Wuppertal and died in Düsseldorf.
“I am often asked why I use 
athletes as models and whether 
this is not outmoded. My 
answer: That which is good 
never becomes obsolete. 
Athletes are the best models for 
sculpture. It is impossible for a 
sculptor like me, who loves the 
triad of beauty of the body, spirit 
and soul, to overlook either a 
male or a female athlete.”
                                                                           Professor Arnold Breker

Breker was born in Elberfeld, in the west of Germany, the son of a stonemason.
He began to study architecture, along with stone-carving and anatomy, and at age 20 was accepted to the Düsseldorf Academy of Arts where he concentrated on sculpture.
He first visited Paris in 1924, shortly before finishing his studies.
There he met with Jean Cocteau, Jean Renoir, Pablo Picasso, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, and Alfred Flechtheim.
In 1927 he moved to Paris, and was quickly accepted by the art dealer Alfred Flechtheim.
He also established close relationships with important figures in the art world, including Charles Despiau, Isamu Noguchi, Maurice de Vlaminck and André Dunoyer de Segonzac, all of whom he later portrayed.
He travelled to North Africa, producing lithographs which he published under the title “Tunisian Journey”.
He also visited Aristide Maillol, who was later to describe Breker as “Germany’s Michelangelo”.
In 1932, he was awarded a prize by the Prussian Ministry of Culture, which allowed him to stay in Rome for a year.

In 1934 he returned to Germany on the advice of Max Liebermann.

Breker was supported by many Nazi leaders, especially Adolf Hitler.

Even Rosenberg later hailed his sculptures as expressions of the “mighty momentum and will power” (“Wucht und Willenhaftigkeit”) of Nazi Germany.
He took commissions from the German Government from 1933 through 1942, for example participating in a show of his work in occupied Paris in 1942, where he met Jean Cocteau, who appreciated his work.
He maintained personal relationships with Albert Speer and with Hitler.

In 1936 he won the commission for two sculptures representing athletic prowess, intended for the 1936 Olympic games, one representing a Decathlete (“Zehnkämpfer”) and the other The Victress (“Die Siegerin”).
In 1937 he married Demetra Messala a Greek model.
The same year, Breker joined the Nazi Party and was made “official state sculptor” by Hitler, given a large property and provided a studio with thousand assistants.
Hitler also exempted him from military service.
His twin sculptures The Party and The Army held a prominent position at the entrance to Albert Speer’s new Reich Chancellery.

Albert Speer, Adolf Hitler & Arno Breker – Paris – June 1940

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THE NUDE IN THE ART OF THE THIRD REICH
Nudity in the shape of health and fitness was nothing new in Germany.
Organized social nudism started in Germany in the late nineteenth century.

By the 1930s nudist clubs (nacktkultur) developed into many different branches according to the political preferences of the membership.

Aryan health and vitality was especially promoted through the pages of Hans Suren’s “Sun cult” books.
Suren was a former German Army officer with colonial service in the tropics.
He strove to recreate the naked, carefree German tribes that existed before contact with Rome or Christianity.
His book ‘Man and the Sun’ (1924) sold over 235, 000 copies and it was reissued in 68 editions by 194.
‘Man and the Sun’ and ‘Gymnastik ‘were some of Hitler’s favourite books, and Nazi culture lovers often admired it.
Accordingly, approved, Aryan nudist organizations, some progressively stressing moderation of sun exposure, became integrated as National Socialist institutions.
Indeed, the very purpose of Gleichschaltung was to make the German people, the collective German Organism, feel as if they were part of a great, positive, movement.

To the Nazis nudism glorified the human body and made the individual, as part of the collective, become aware of the body’s inherent strength and beauty.

The removal of clothing also removed any evidence of rank or privilege among German Aryans, the primary goal of the Nazis.
Exercise in the nude, especially for young males, served to strengthen the body and build endurance for the ultimate goal of the Nazi State.
The cult of the Superman would grow ever more in importance as Hitler developed the political wing of the Thule Society.
The beauty of God’s creation of man, naked and unashamed became in Germany an outward symbol of the strength and superiority of the Aryan race.
Great emphasis was placed upon the glorification of the Aryan superman though the portrayal of the naked body.

WORSHIP OF THE BODY

‘WOUNDED HERO’
Arno Breker
‘ADOLF HITLER’
Arno Breker
‘RICHARD WAGNER’
Arno Breker
‘RICHARD WAGNER’
Arno Breker
Click below for all you want to know about 
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013

WAGNER and his MUSIC


‘ADOLF HITLER’
Arno Breker
‘FREDERICH NIETSZCHE’
Arno Breker
‘Διόνυσος’ – ‘DIONYSUS’
Arno Breker
‘HEROIC HEAD’
Arno Breker
‘HEROIC HEAD’
Arno Breker
‘BEREITSCHAFT’
(Readiness)
Arno Breker
‘Προμηθεύς’
‘PROMETHEUS’
Arno Breker
‘Προμηθεύς’
‘PROMETHEUS’
Arno Breker
‘Προμηθεύς’
‘PROMETHEUS’
Arno Breker
Arno Breker working on Prometheus
‘MALE NUDE TORSO’
Arno Breker
‘GENIUS DES SIEGERS’
(Spirit of Victory)
Arno Breker
‘ARYAN MAN’
Arno Breker
‘MALE NUDE’
Arno Breker
‘PSYCHE’
Arno Breker
‘ANGEL OF DEATH’
Arno Breker
‘DYING WARRIOR’
Arno Breker
‘DYING WARRIOR’
(Bronze)
Arno Breker
‘MALE NUDE RELIEF’
Arno Breker
‘VICTORIOUS WARRIOR’
Arno Breker
‘DER RACHER’
(The Revenge – Warrior with a Serpent)
Arno Breker
‘KAMARADSCHAFT’
(Comradeship)
Arno Breker
‘KAMARADSCHAFT’
(Comradeship)
Arno Breker
‘DEPARTURE FOR BATTLE’
Arno Breker
‘DER RUFER’
Arno Breker
‘BEREITSCHAFT’
Arno Breker
‘DER BANNERTRAGER’
(Standard Bearer)
Arno Breker
‘EURIDICE & ORPHEUS’
Arno Breker
APOLLO & DAPHNE’
Arno Breker
‘YOU & ME’
Arno Breker
‘DER APFEL DES PARIS’
(The Apple of Paris)
Arno Breker
‘ST SEBASTIAN’
Arno Breker
‘OLYMPIA’
Arno Breker
‘OLYMPIA’
Arno Breker
‘TORSO DES ROSSBANDIGERS’
Arno Breker
‘ALEXANDER THE GREAT’
Arno Breker
‘ALEXANDER THE GREAT’
Arno Breker
‘ADLER DES ZEUS’
Arno Breker

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