Great German Architecture

GREAT GERMAN ARCHITECTURE


Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and the architecture of Italian Andrea Palladio.
In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.
High neoclassicism was an international movement. Though neoclassical architecture employs the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture, it tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes.
Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are flatter; sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Its clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves.
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, the works of Leo von Klenze, Sir John Soane’s Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, DC in the United States. 
Glyptothek
München
Leo von Klenze – 1816 -1830
The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection ofGreek and Roman sculptures, (hence γλυπτο- glypto- “sculpture”, from the Greek verb γλύφειν glyphein “to carve”).
It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830.
Today the museum is a part of the Kunstareal.
Propyläen
München
 Leo von Klenze – 1862
The building constructed in Doric order was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and evokes the monumental entrance of the Propylaea for the Athenian Acropolis.
The gate was created as a memorial for the accession to the throne of Otto of Greece, a son of the principal King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
The reliefs and sculptures celebrating the Bavarian prince and the Greek War of Independence were created by Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler.

Ruhmeshalle
München 
 Leo von Klenze
Regensburg Walhalla
 Leo von Klenze 1830 – 1842

The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history — politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue”.
The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany.
The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology.
It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I.
Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze.
The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history.
Regensburg Walhalla
Interior
Regensburg Walhalla
Colonade
Altes Museum
Karl Friedrich Schinkel – (1781 – 1841)
The Altes Museum  was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family’s art collection.
The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel’s career.
Until 1845, it was called the Königliches Museum (Royal Museum).
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781, Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg – 9 October 1841, Berlin, Province of Brandenburg) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neo-gothic buildings.


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Die Neue Kunst
 
 
At the 1933 Nürnberg Reichsparteitag, the new Chancellor, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the dawn of an era of ‘New Art’ – and instituted the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture) to oversee the cultural life of Das Dritte Reich, (the Third Reich).
The Reichskulturkammer was headed by Dr. Paul Joseph Göbbels.
The Reichskulturkammer was to control all aspects of culture, and this included the fine arts, applied arts,  industrial design, sculpture, architecture and film.

On July 18, 1937, Hitler delivered a speech at the opening of the House of German Art in Munich, which was to take the place of the former “Glass Palace.”
In the collapse of Germany after the war, he said, the economic decline had been generally felt, the political decline had been denied by many, the cultural decline had not even been observed by the majority of the people.
It was an age of phrases and catchwords: in the economic sphere the hard facts of misery and unemployment deprived these phrases of their force: in the political sphere such phrases as “international solidarity” had more success and veiled from the German people the extent of the political collapse.
But in the long run the failure of the parliamentary-democratic form of government, copied from the West – a West which regardless of this democratic form still continued to extort from Germany whatever there remained to extort – defeated the phrase-mongers.
Far more lasting was the effect of these phrases in the cultural field, where they resulted in a complete confusion concerning the essential character of culture.
Here the influence of the Jews was paramount and through their control of the press they were able to intimidate those who desired to champion “the normal sound intelligence and instinct of men,” Art was said to be “an international experience,” and thus all comprehension of its intimate association with a people was stifled: it was said that there was no such thing as the art of a people or, better, of a race: there was only the art of a certain period.
Thus it was not Greeks who created the art of Greece, Romans the art of Rome, etc. – a particular period had found in each art its expression.
Art is a “time-conditioned phenomenon.”
So today there is not a German or a French art, ‘but a “modern art.”
This is to reduce art to the level of fashions in dress, with the motto “Every year something fresh” – Impressionism, Futurism, Cubism, perhaps also Dadaism.
These newly created art phrases would be comic, if they were not tragic.
The result was uncertainty in judgements passed on art and the silencing of those who might otherwise have protested against this Kulturbolschewismus, while the press continued to poison our sound appreciation of art. And just as in fashions one must wear “modern” clothes whether they are beautiful or not, so the great masters of the past were decried.
But true art is and remains eternal, it does not follow the law of the season’s fashions: its effect is that of a revelation arising from the depths of the essential character of a people which successive generations can inherit. But those who do not create for eternity do not readily talk of eternities: they seek to dim the radiance of these giants who reach out of the past into the future in order that contemporaries may discover their own tiny flames.
These facile daubers in art are but the products of a day: yesterday, non-existent: today, modern: tomorrow, out of date. The Jewish discovery that art was just the affair of a period was for them a godsend: theirs could be the art of the present time.
Theirs was a small art – small in form and substance – and at the same time intolerant of the masters of the past and the rivals of the present.
There was a conspiracy of incapacity and mediocrity against better work of any age.
The new rich, having no judgement of their own in art matters, accepted these artists at their own valuation.
It was only an attraction that these works of art were difficult to understand and on that account very costly: no one wished to admit lack of comprehension or insufficient means!
And if one does not oneself understand, probably one’s neighbor will not either, and he will admire one’s comprehension of obscurity.
For this “modern art” National Socialism desires to substitute a “German” art and an eternal art.
This House of German Art is designed for the art of the German people – not for an international art.
“The people in the flux of phenomena is the one constant point.
It is that which is abiding and permanent, and therefore art as the expression of the essential character of the abiding people must be an eternal monument, itself abiding and permanent; there can be therefore no standard of yesterday and today, of modern or un-modern: there can be only the standard of ‘valueless’ or ‘valuable,’ of ‘eternal’ or ‘transitory.
“And therefore in speaking of German art I shall see the standard for that art in the German people, in its character and life, in its feeling, its emotions, and its development.”
From the history of the development of our people we know that it is composed of a number of more or less distinct races which in the course of millennia through the formative influence of a certain outstanding racial kernel produced that mixture which we see before us in Our people today.
This force which formed the people in time past and which still today continues that formative activity lies in the same Aryan branch of mankind which we recognize not only as the support of our own civilization but of the earlier civilizations of the ancient world.
The way in which our people was composed has produced the many-sidedness of our own cultural development, but as we look upon the final result of this process we cannot but wish for an art which may correspond to the increasing homogeneity of our racial composition, and thus present in itself the characteristics of unity and homogeneity.
Many attempts have been made through the centuries to define what “to be German” really means.
I would not seek to give an explanation in the first instance.
I would rather state a law – a law previously expressed by a great German: “To be German is to be clear,” and that means that to be German is to be logical and true.
It is this spirit which has always lived in our people, which has inspired painters, sculptors, architects, thinkers, poets, and above all our musicians.
When on June 6, 1931, the Glass Palace was burned down there perished with it an immortal treasure of German art. The artists were called Romantics, and yet they were but the finest representatives of that German search for the real and true character of our people, for an honest and decent expression of this law of life divined by our people.
For it was not only their choice of subject which was decisive, but the clear and simple mode of rendering these sentiments.
Many of their original works are lost, we possess only copies or reproductions, but the works of these masters are removed by a great gulf from the pitiable products of our modern so-called “creative artists.”
These masters felt themselves to be Germans, and consequently they created works which should be valued as long as there should be a German people to appreciate them.
But these modern works we would also preserve as documents illustrating the depths of that decline into which the people had fallen.
The “Exhibition of Degenerate Art” is intended as a useful lesson.
During the long years in which I planned the formation of a new Reich I gave much thought to the tasks which would await us in the cultural cleansing of the people’s life: there was to be a cultural renascence as well as a political and economic reform.
I was convinced that peoples which have been trodden underfoot by the whole world of their day have all the greater duty consciously to assert their own value before their oppressors, and there is no prouder proof of the highest rights of a people to its own life than immortal cultural achievements.
I was therefore always determined that if fate should one day give us power I would discuss these matters with no one but would form my own decisions, for it is not given to all to have an understanding for tasks as great as these.
Among the plans which floated before me in my mind both during the war and after the collapse was the idea of building a great new exhibition palace in Munich; and many years ago I thought of the place where the building now stands.
In 1931 I feared that I should be anticipated and that the “men of November” would erect an exhibition building. Plans indeed were produced for an edifice.
But when we came to power in 1933 the plan had not been executed: the erection of the building was left to the Third Reich.
And the building is so unique, so individual, that it cannot be compared with anything else: it is a true monument for this city and more than that – for German art….
It represents a turning point, the first of the new buildings which will take their place among the immortal achievements of German artistic life.
But the House is not enough: it must house an Exhibition, and if now I venture to speak of art I can claim a title to do so from the contribution which I myself have made to the restoration of German art.
For our modern German state that I with my associates have created has alone brought into existence the conditions for a new, vigorous flowering of art.
It is not Bolshevist art collectors or their henchmen who have laid the foundations: we have provided vast sums for the encouragement of art, we have set before art itself great, new tasks.
As in politics, so in German art-life: we are determined to make a clean sweep of phrases.
Ability is the necessary qualification if an artist wishes his work to be exhibited here.
People have attempted to recommend modern art by saying that it is the expression of a new age: but art does not create a new age, it is the general life of peoples which fashions itself anew and therefore often seeks after a new expression.
A new epoch is not created by littérateurs but by the fighters, those who really fashion and lead peoples, who thus make history.
It is either impudent effrontery or stark stupidity to exhibit to the people of today works which perhaps ten or twenty thousand years ago might have been made by a man of the Stone Age.
They talk of primitive art, but they forget that it is not the function of art to retreat backward from the stage of development which a people has already reached: its sole function must be to symbolize that development.
The new age of today is at work on a new human type.
Men and women are to be more healthy, stronger: there is a new feeling of life, a new joy in life.
Never was humanity in its external appearance and in its frame of mind nearer to the ancient world than it is today.
This is the type of the new age.
The artist does not create for the artist: he creates for the people and we will see to it that henceforth the people will be called in to judge its art.
No one must say that the people has no understanding for a really valuable enrichment of its cultural life. Before the critics did justice to the genius of a Richard Wagner he had the people on his side, while the people has had nothing to do with so-called “modern art.”
The people regarded this art as the outcome of an impudent and unashamed arrogance or of a simply shocking lack of skill; it felt that this art-stammer – these achievements which might have been produced by untalented children of from eight to ten years old – could never be valued as an expression of our own times or of the German future.
When we know today that the development of millions of years repeats itself in every individual compressed into a few decades, then this art, we realize, is not “modern”; it is on the contrary in the highest degree “archaic,” far older probably than the Stone Age.
The people when it passes through these galleries will recognize in me its own spokesman and counsellor: it will draw a sigh of relief and express its glad agreement with this purification of art.
And that is decisive: an art which cannot count on the readiest and most intimate agreement of the great mass of the people, an art which must rely upon the support of small cliques, is intolerable.
Such an art does but endeavour to confuse, instead of gladly reinforcing, the sure and healthy instinct of a people.
The artist cannot stand aloof from his people.
This exhibition is but a beginning, yet the end of the artistic stultification of Germany has begun.
Now is the opportunity for youth to start its industrious apprenticeship, and when a sacred conscientiousness at last comes into its own, then I doubt not that the Almighty, from the mass of these decent creators of art, will once more raise up individuals to the eternal starry heaven of the imperishable God-favored artists of the great periods. We believe that especially today, when in so many spheres the highest individual achievements are being manifested, so also in art the highest value of personality will once again assert itself.




‘Germany wants again a “German Art,” and this art shall and will be of eternal value, as are all truly creative values of a people.
Should this art, however, again lack this eternal value for our people, then indeed it will mean that it also has no higher value today
When, therefore, the cornerstone of this building was laid, it was with the intention of constructing a temple, not for a so-called modern art, but for a true and everlasting German art, that is, better still, a House for the art of the German people.
It is therefore imperative for the artist to erect monuments, not so much to a period, but to his people.
For time is changeable, years come and go.
Anything born of and thriving on a certain epoch alone would perish with it.
And not only all which had been created before us would fall victim to this mortality, but also what is being created today or will be created in the future.
But the National-Socialists know of only one mortality, and that is the mortality of the people itself:
As long as a people exists, however, it is the fixed pole in the flight of fleeting appearances.
It is the quality of being and lasting permanence.
And, indeed, for this reason, art as an expression of the essence of this being, is an eternal monument.’
Adolf Hitler
 

‘Tag der Deutschen Kunst in München’


HITLER AND THE ARTS

“After being appointed chancellor in 1933 the first building Hitler had erected was not a monument to his own triumph but a massive art gallery.”
Hitler’s complaint to his field commanders after Winston Churchill refused peace terms in 1940 was, “It is a pity that I have to wage war on account of that drunk instead of serving the works of peace.”
The tasks of peace—grand architectural renovations and the promotion of German culture—were uppermost in Hitler’s mind, as Hermann Giesler has shown us throughout his memoir.
But not only Giesler.
After pondering the matter for 20 years in Spandau prison, Hitler’s other architect Albert Speer concluded that Hitler was always and with his whole heart an artist.
Hitler’s secretary Christa Schroeder recalled that his non-military conversation turned more and more to the arts.
Josef Goebbels provides numerous examples in his diaries.
In Jan.1942, after a long discussion with Hitler, he wrote: “The intensity of the Fuehrer’s longing for music, theatre and cultural relaxation is enormous.
The life he was then leading was “culturally empty,” the Fuehrer had told him, and he looked forward to the war’s end when he would “compensate for this by a dedication stronger than ever to the more beautiful sides of life.” 
Giesler, in charge of designing Hitler’s retirement home overlooking Linz. Hitler envisioned discussion of art, philosophy and matters of importance to the future of Europe by those invited to his home. “Ms. Braun,” whom he would marry when he retired after the war, would be the lady of the house.
Hitler was no dilettante.
His knowledge of architecture was enormous, along with many other subjects.
He had supported himself from 1909-1913 in Vienna and Munich by drawing and painting architectural landmarks in watercolor and oil, selling them through dealers.
His Munich landlord, Herr Popp, said he often found his lodger reading the works of Schopenhauer and Plato, along with war histories.
Throughout the First World War Hitler carried with him a pocket edition of Schopenhauer’s ‘The World as Will and Idea’.
His enthusiasm for Richard Wagner’s music began as a 12 year-old boy attending a performance of Lohengrin in Linz.
He’s said to have seen ‘Tristan und Isolde’ up to 40 times and ‘Der Meistersinger’ one hundred times. He could hum or whistle all its themes.
In 1942, Hitler became equally enthused about Austrian-born composer Anton Bruckner.
He considered Bruckner’s Seventh Symphony the equivalent of Beethoven’s Ninth.
Always generous with his own funds, Hitler personally financed a centre of Bruckner studies, had his organ repaired and added to his library; he designed a monument in his honour in Linz; endowed a Bruckner Orchestra and subsidized the publication of the composer’s original scores.
No other leader of the time came close to that dedication. “Stalin as well as Lenin, Mussolini, Mao Tse-tung and their ilk … had never set foot in an art gallery.”
While ostensibly better-educated, Churchill, Roosevelt and Wilson were also far below Hitler’s level of cultural awareness.
It turns out, by a close study of Adolf Hitler’s biographers, memoirists, associates and the record itself, that his idea of national greatness was only fulfilled in a true national art and culture—reminiscent of the ancient Greeks he admired, wherein magnificent physical beauty combines with a brilliant mind and noble soul.


click here for more information about Adolf Hitler
and

Hitler my young Friend‘ by August Kubizek

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Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)

Paul Ludwig Troost

The building was constructed from 1934 to 1937 following plans of architect Paul Ludwig Troost as the Third Reich’s first monumental structure of Nazi architecture and as Nazi propaganda.
The museum, then called Haus der deutschen Kunst (“House of German Art”), was opened in March 1937 as a showcase Germany’s finest art.
The inaugural exhibition was the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung (“Great German art exhibition”), which was an edifying contrast to the condemned modern art on display in the concurrent Entartete Kunst exhibition.
On 15 and 16 October 1939, the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung inside the Haus der Deutschen Kunst was complemented by the monumental Tag der deutschen Kunst celebration of “2,000 years of Germanic culture” where luxuriously draped floats (one of them carrying a 5 meter tall golden Nazi Reichsadler) and thousands of actors in historical costumes paraded down Prinzregentenstraße for hours in the presence of Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley, Reinhard Heydrich, and many other high-ranking Nazis, with minor events taking place in the Englischer Garten nearby.

The 1939 Tag der Deutschen Kunst was documented by a group of hobby cinematographers on 16 mm Kodachrome color movie, the resulting 30-minute film is still pristine today due to Kodachrome’s unusual archival properties, and is available in a variety of editions on VHS and DVD, such as Farben 1939 – ‘Tag der Deutschen Kunst in München’. (see excerpts above)



Professor Paul Ludwig Troost and Adolf Hitler

Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art) – detail
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art) – detail
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
interior
Paul Ludwig Troost

Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost

Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost





REICH ADLER
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – PLAN – BERLIN
Albert Speer






‘Der Bau der Reichskanzlei I’
(The Building of the Reich’s Chancellery I)
Erich Merker




‘Der Bau der Reichskanzlei II’
(The Building of the Reich’s Chancellery II)
Erich Merker






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MARMORGALERIE – BERLIN
Albert Speer


In late January 1938, Adolf Hitler officially assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery around the corner on Voßstraße, a branch-off of Wilhelmstraße, requesting that the building be completed within a year.
Hitler commented that Bismarck’s Old Chancellery was “fit for a soap company” but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. It nevertheless remained his official residence with its recently refurbished representation rooms on the groundfloor and private rooms on the upper floor where Hitler lived in the so called Führerwohnung (“Führer apartment”).
Hitler placed the entire northern side of the Voßstraße at Speer’s disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls and salons which “will make an impression on people”.
Speer was given a blank cheque — Hitler stated that the cost of the project was immaterial — and was instructed that the building be of solid construction and that it be finished by the following January in time for the next New Year diplomatic reception to be held in the new building.
Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock.
In the end it cost over 90 Million Reichsmark, well over one billion dollars today.
In his memoirs, Speer described the impression of the Reichskanzlei on a visitor:
The series of rooms comprising the approach to Hitler’s reception gallery were decorated with a rich variety of materials and colours and totalled 220 m (725 ft) in length.
The gallery itself was 145 m (480 ft) long. Hitler’s own office was 400 square meters in size.
From the exterior, the chancellery had a stern, authoritarian appearance.
From the Wilhelmplatz, visitors would enter the Chancellery through the Court of Honour (Ehrenhof). The building’s main entrance was flanked by two bronze statues by sculptor Arno Breker: “Wehrmacht” and “Partei” (“Armed Forces” and “Party”).
Hitler is said to have been greatly impressed by the building and was uncharacteristically effusive with his praise for Speer, lauding the architect as a “genius”.
The chancellor’s immense study was a particular favourite of the dictator.
The large marble-topped table served as an important part of the Nazi leader’s military headquarters, the study being used for military conferences from 1944 on. On the other hand, the Cabinet room was never used for its intended purpose.






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Entrance to Ante Room)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Entrance to Mosaic Hall)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Entrance to Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Cabinet Room)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Reception Room)
Albert Speer
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Adolf Hitler’s Private Apartment)
Albert Speer
Bronze Wall Sconce
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN

(Main Entrance)

Albert Speer




Main Entrance Ceiling
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer





Main Entrance
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer






MAIN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer



GARDEN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – DRAWING
Albert Speer






GARDEN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer




GARDEN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer






MAIN FAÇADE – NIGHT
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer







GERMANIA
Albert Speer

Welthauptstadt Germania (“World Capital Germania”) refers to the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler’s vision for the future of Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Albert Speer, the “first architect of the Third Reich”, produced many of the plans for the rebuilt city in his capacity as overseer of the project, only a small portion of which was realized between the years 1937-1943 when construction took place.
Some projects, such as the creation of a great East-West city axis, which included broadening Charlottenburger Chaussee (today Straße des 17. Juni) and placing the Berlin victory column in the center, far away from the Reichstag, where it originally stood, succeeded.
Others, however, such as the creation of the Große Halle (Great Hall), had to be shelved owing to the beginning of war.
A great number of the old buildings in many of the planned construction areas were however demolished before the war and eventually defeat stopped the plans.
The combined name “Welthauptstadt Germania” for the project was coined by Albert Speer in his 1969 memoirs Inside the Third Reich. 





MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG – GERMANIA
Albert Speer

According to the records of Hitler’s Table Talk of 8 June 1942 Hitler toyed with the idea of renaming the renewed Berlin into ‘Germania’, in order to give a Greater Germanic world empire a clear central point:
The term Welthauptstadt (World Capital) was already used by Hitler three months prior on the night between the 11th and 12th of March 1942 in the Wolf’s Lair:
“Berlin as the World Capital will only be comparable with Ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Rome! What are London and Paris compared to that!”
—Werner Jochmann: Adolf Hitler. Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941–1944, p. 318. Munich, 1980.
The title ‘Welthauptstadt’ was chosen because it was felt that Berlin’s architecture was at that time too provincial and that there was need to put Berlin on a par with and exceed the quality of other world capitals such as London, Paris and especially Rome.



MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG – GERMANIA
Albert Speer



 GROßE HALLE – GERMANIA
Albert Speer


The sketch of the Volkshalle given by Hitler to Speer shows a traditional gabled pronaos supported by ten columns, a shallow rectangular intermediate block and behind it the domed main building.
However, there was little about Speer’s elaboration of the sketch that might be termed Doric, except perhaps for the triglyphs in the entablature, supported by the geminated red granite columns with their Egyptian palm-leaf capitals, previously employed by Speer in the portico outside Hitler’s study on the garden side of the new Chancellery (see above).




 GROßE HALLE – GERMANIA
Albert Speer


Speer’s Große Halle was to be the capital’s most important and impressive building in terms of its size and symbolism. Visually it was to have been the architectural centrepiece of Berlin as the world capital (Welthauptstadt).
Its dimensions were so large that it would have dwarfed every other structure in Berlin, including those on the north-south axis itself.
The oculus of the building’s dome, 46 metres (151 ft) in diameter, would have accommodated the entire rotunda of Hadrian’s Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica.
The dome of the Volkshalle was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,033 × 1,033 ft) and 74 metres (243 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). 
The resemblance of the Volkshalle to the Pantheon is far more obvious when their interiors are compared.
The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Hitler’s tribunal.
From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.
The three concentric tiers of seats enclosing a circular arena 140 metres (460 ft) in diameter owe nothing to the Pantheon but resemble the seating arrangements in Ludwig Ruff’s Congress Hall at Nuremberg, which was modeled on the Colosseum.
Other features of the Volkshalle’s interior are clearly indebted to Hadrian’s Pantheon: the coffered dome, the pillared zone, which here is continuous, except where it flanks the huge niche on the north side.
The second zone in the Pantheon, consisting of blind windows with intervening pilasters, is represented in Speer’s building by a zone above the pillars consisting of uniform, oblong shallow recesses.
The coffered dome rests on this zone. 
Hitler’s aspirations to world domination and the establishment of his New Order, already evident from architectural and decorative features of the new Chancellery, are even more clearly expressed here.
External symbols suggest that the domed hall was where Hitler as cosmocrator (Herr der Welt) would appear before his Herrenvolk: On top of the dome’s lantern was an eagle grasping in its claws not the usual swastika but the globe of the Earth (Erdball).
This combination of eagle and ball was well known in imperial Roman iconography, for example, the restored statue of Claudius holding a ball and eagle in his right hand.
The vast dome, on which it rested, as with Hadrian’s Pantheon, symbolically represented the vault of the sky spanning Hitler’s world empire.
The globe on the dome’s lantern was enhanced and emphasized by two monumental sculptures by Breker, each 15 metres high, which flanked the north façade of the building: at its west end Atlas supporting the heavens, at its east end Tellus supporting the Earth.
Both mythological figures were according to Speer, chosen by Hitler himself.




GROßE HALLE – GERMANIA
Albert Speer






ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer



ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer




GERMAN PAVILLION – PARIS
Albert Speer

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