Adolf Hitler – The Rise to Power

   

ADOLF HITLER – DER AUFSTIEG ZUR MACHT

(Adolf Hitler – the Rise to Power)

DIE WEIMARER REPUBLIK
(THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC)

Adolf Hitler’s rise to power began in Germany (at least formally) in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party that was known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (abbreviated as DAP, and later commonly referred to as the Nazi Party).

This political party was formed and developed during the post-World War I era. It was anti-Marxist and was opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles; and it advocated extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism.

Hitler’s “rise” can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag (see right) adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month; President Paul von Hindenburg (see left) had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on January 30, 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backstairs intrigues.

The Enabling Act — when used ruthlessly and with authority — virtually assured that Hitler could thereafter constitutionally exercise dictatorial power without legal objection.
Hitler rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party.
Being one of the best speakers of the party, he told the other members of the party to either make him leader of the party, or, he would never return.

He was aided in part by his willingness to use violence in advancing his political objectives and to recruit party members who were willing to do the same.
The Beer Hall putsch in 1923 and the later release of his book ‘Mein Kampf’ (usually translated as ‘My Struggle’) introduced Hitler to a wider audience. In the mid-1920s, the party engaged in electoral battles in which Hitler participated as a speaker and organizer, as well as in street battles and violence between the Rotfrontkämpferbund (see right) and the Nazi’s Sturmabteilung (SA). Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag, and Hitler’s blend of political acuity, deceptiveness and cunning converted the party’s non-majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933.
Once in power, the Nazis created a mythology surrounding the rise to power, and they described the period that roughly corresponds to the scope of this article as either the Kampfzeit (the time of struggle) or the Kampfjahre (years of struggle).

The Beginning (1918-1924)

From Armistice (November 1918) to party membership (September 1919)


For over four years (August 1914 – November 1918), the Deutsches Kaiserreich (Germany) was a principal belligerent in World War I, on the Western Front (see right).

German: Deutsches Kaiserreich (The German Empire)  is the common name given to the state officially named the Deutsches Reich (literally: “German Realm”, designating Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.

Wilhelm II (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. His “New Course” in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to World War I. An ineffective war leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands.

Soon after the fighting on the front ended in November 1918, Hitler returned to Munich (see right) after the Armistice with no job, no real civilian job skills and no friends.

He remained in the Reichswehr and was given a relatively meaningless assignment during the winter of 1918-1919, but was eventually recruited by the Army’s Political Department (Press and News Bureau), possibly because of his assistance to the Army in investigating the responsibility for the ill-fated Bayerische Räterepublik (Bavarian Soviet Republic).

The Jewish led Bavarian Soviet Republic, also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (German: Bayerische Räterepublik or Münchner Räterepublik) was, as part of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the short-lived attempt to establish a socialist state in the form of a democratic workers’ council republic in the Free State of Bavaria.
It sought independence from the also recently proclaimed Weimar Republic. Its capital was Munich.

Apparently his skills in oratory, as well as his extreme nationalism, caught the eye of an approving army officer and he was promoted to an “education officer” — which gave him an opportunity to speak in public.
One of his duties was to report on “subversive” political groups, as ordered by his superiors. Any group which contained the word “Workers” in its name was certainly suspicious to the Political Department, and his commanders assigned Hitler, in his role as investigator, to attend a meeting of the small Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers’ Party, abbreviated DAP) on 12 September 1919.

The German Workers’ Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated DAP) was the short-lived predecessor of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP).

The DAP was founded in Munich in the hotel “Fürstenfelder Hof” on January 5, 1919 by Anton Drexler (see right), a member of the occultist Thule Society (see left).
It developed out of the “Freien Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden” (Free Workers’ Committee for a good Peace) which Drexler had also founded and led. Its first members were mostly colleagues of Drexler’s from the Munich rail depot. Drexler was encouraged to found the DAP by his mentor, Dr. Paul Tafel, a leader of the Alldeutscher Verband (Pan-Germanist Union), a director of the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg, also a member of the Thule Society, and his wish was for a party which was both in touch with the masses and nationalist, unlike the middle class parties.

The initial membership was about forty people.
On March 24, 1919, Karl Harrer (a sports journalist and member of the Thule Society) joined the DAP to increase the influence of the Thule Society over the DAP’s activities, and the party name was changed to the “Political Workers’ Circle”.


During the 12 September meeting, Hitler took umbrage with comments made by an audience member that were directed against Gottfried Feder (see right), the speaker, an economist with whom Hitler was acquainted as a result of a lecture Feder delivered in an Army “education” course.
The audience member asserted that Bavaria should be wholly independent from Germany and should secede from Germany and unite with Austria to form a new South German nation.
The volatile Hitler arose and castigated the audience member, employing his oratorical skills and eventually causing theman to leave the meeting before its adjournment.
This bold (and typical) action by Hitler deeply impressed DAP founder Anton Drexler, who promptly handed Hitler a political pamphlet.
Soon, Drexler or his designate sent Hitler a postcard that invited him to join the party and to attend a “committee” meeting.
Hitler attended this meeting, held at the Alte Rosenbad beer-house, and initially concluded that the party was too muddled and disorganized to merit further attention: It had neither membership numbers nor membership cards, and had a treasury of about seven Reichsmarks, however, on further reflection Hitler realized that because the party was neither well established nor particularly organized, he could exercise a greater influence on its direction.
After two days in thought, Hitler decided to join the DAP; he was the party’s fifty-fifth member.

The First Two Years: Party Membership to the Hofbrauhaus Melee (November 1921)

By early 1920 the DAP had swelled to over 101 members, and Hitler received his membership card as member number 555 (the group started the counting at number 500).
Hitler’s considerable talents were appreciated by the party leadership and in early 1920’s he was named as its head of propaganda.
Hitler’s actions began to transform the party.

On 20 February, the party added National Socialist (Nationalsozialistische) to its name and became the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) (see left).
Four days later Drexler, Feder and Hitler announced the party’s 25-point program (see National Socialist Program).

In August Hitler also organized a group of “security men” under the guise of a party “Gymnastics and Sports Division.”
The group was named at first the Ordnertruppen and it may well be that their principal intended purpose was, in fact, to keep order at Nazi meetings and to only suppress those who disrupted the Nazi meetings.
In early October the group’s name was officially changed to the Sturmabteilung (Storm Detachment) (see right), which was certainly more descriptive and suggested the possibility of offensive, as well as solely defensive, action.

Throughout 1920, Hitler began to lecture at Munich’s beer halls, particularly the Hofbräuhaus (see left and right), Sterneckerbräu and Bürgerbräukeller.
By this time, the police were already monitoring the speeches, and their own surviving records reveal that Hitler delivered lectures with titles such as Political Phenomenon, Jews and the Treaty of Versailles.
At the end of the year, party membership was recorded at 2,000.
On 11 July 1921, Hitler resigned from the party after Drexler, the party’s nominal leader, proposed merging the party into a larger Kampfbund coalition.

The Kampfbund was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany, in the 1920s. It included Hitler’s NSDAP party and their Sturmabteilung or SA for short, the Oberland League and the Reichskriegsflagge. Its military leader was Hermann Kriebel (see right), and its political leader was Adolf Hitler. It was Captain Ernst Röhm (see left) who proposed that Hitler be the political leader of the Kampfbund.
The Kampfbund conducted the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923 in Munich, Germany.
Kampfbund is German for “Battle League”. The league was created on 30 September 1923 at Nuremberg.


Hitler rejoined once the policy was abandoned, and on 28 July assumed control of the party by outcasting Drexler.
On 14 September 1921, Hitler and a substantial number of SA members and other Nazi party adherents disrupted a meeting at the Lowenbraukeller of the Bavarian League.
This federalist organization objected to the centralism of the Weimar Constitution, but accepted its social program.
The League was led by Otto Ballerstedt, an engineer whom Hitler regarded as “my most dangerous opponent.”
One Nazi, Hermann Esser, climbed upon a chair and shouted that the Jews were to blame for the misfortunes of Bavaria, and the Nazis shouted demands that Ballerstedt yield the floor to Hitler.
The Nazis shoved Ballerstedt off the stage into the audience.
Both Hitler and Esser were arrested, and Hitler commented notoriously to the police commissioner, “It’s all right. We got what we wanted. Ballerstedt did not speak.
Hitler was eventually sentenced to 3 months imprisonment and ended up serving only a little over one month.
On 4 November 1921, the Nazi Party held a large public meeting in the Munich Hofbräuhaus. After Hitler had spoken for some time, the meeting erupted into a melee in which a small company of SA defeated the opposition.

From Famous Hall Melee to Famous Hall Coup D’État – the Abortive Putsch and the Trial

In the few months between the end of 1922 and the beginning of 1923, Hitler formed two organizations that would grow to have huge significance.

The first was the Jungsturm and Jugendbund, which would later become the Hitler Youth.
The other was the Stabswache, the first incarnation of what would later become the Schutzstaffeln (SS).
Inspired by Benito Mussolini’s March on Rome Hitler decided that a coup d’état was the proper strategy to seize control of the country.
In May 1923, elements loyal to Hitler within the army helped the SA to procure a barracks and its weaponry, but the order to march never came.

A pivotal moment came when Hitler led the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempted coup d’état on 8–9 November 1923.

After it failed, Hitler was put on trial for treason, gaining great public attention.
In a rather spectacular trial in which Hitler endeavored to turn the tables and put democracy and the Weimar Republic on trial as traitors to the German people, he was convicted and sentenced to five years imprisonment.
He was eventually paroled, served only a little over eight months after his sentencing in early 1924.

He was well-treated in prison, had a room with a view of the river, wore a tie, received visitors to his chambers and was permitted the use of a private secretary.

Hitler used the time in Landsberg prison to consider his political strategy and dictate the first volume of ‘Mein Kampf’, principally to his loyal aide Rudolf Hess.
After the putsch the party was banned in Bavaria, but it participated in 1924’s two elections by proxy as the National Socialist Freedom Movement.
In the German election, May 1924 the party gained seats in the Reichstag, with 6.55% (1,918,329) voting for the Movement. In the German election, December 1924 the National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB) (Combination of the Deutschvölkische Freiheitspartei (DVFP) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP)) lost 18 seats, only holding on to 14 seats, with 3% (907,242) of the electorate voting for Hitler’s party.
The Barmat Scandal was often used later in Nazi propaganda, both as an electoral strategy and as an appeal to anti-Semitism.
Hitler had determined, after some reflection, that power was to be achieved not through revolution outside of the government, but rather through legal means, within the confines of the democratic system established by Weimar.
For five to six years there would be no further prohibitions of the party.

The Move Towards Power (1925–1930)

In the German election, May 1928 the Party achieved just 12 seats (2.6% of the vote) in the Reichstag.
The highest provincial gain was again in Bavaria (5.11%), though in three areas the NSDAP failed to gain even 1% of the vote.
Overall the NSDAP gained 2.63% (810,127) of the vote.
Partially due to the poor results, Hitler decided that Germans needed to know more about his goals.

Despite being discouraged by his publisher, he wrote a second book that was discovered and released posthumously as Zweites Buch (see left)
At this time the SA began a period of deliberate antagonism to the Rotfront by marching into Communist strongholds and starting violent altercations.
At the end of 1928, party membership was recorded at 130,000. In March 1929, Erich Ludendorff (see right) represented the Nazi party in the Presidential elections.
He gained 280,000 votes (1.1%), and was the only candidate to poll fewer than a million votes.
The battles on the streets grew increasingly violent.
After the Rotfront interrupted a speech by Hitler, the SA marched into the streets of Nuremberg and killed two bystanders.

In a tit-for-tat action, the SA stormed a Rotfront meeting on August 25 and days later the Berlin headquarters of the KPD itself.
In September Goebbels (see left) led his men into Neukölln, a KPD stronghold, and the two warring parties exchanged pistol and revolver fire.
The German referendum of 1929 was important as it gained the Nazi Party recognition and credibility it never had before.

On 14 January 1930 Horst Wessel got into an argument with his landlady about rent, but the Communists alleged it was over Wessel’s soliciting of prostitution on her premises — which would have fatal consequences.
The landlady happened to be a member of the KPD, and contacted one of her Rotfront friends, Albert Hochter, who shot Wessel in the head at point-blank range.

Wessel had penned a song months before his death, which would become Germany’s national anthem for 12 years as the Horst-Wessel-Lied.
Goebbels also seized upon the attack (and the two weeks Wessel spent on his deathbed) to premier the song.
Along with Horst Wessel, the year 1930 resulted in more deaths in political violence than the previous two years combined.
On 1 April Hannover enacted a law banning the Hitlerjugend (the Hitler Youth), and Goebbels was convicted of high treason at the end of May. Bavaria banned all political uniforms on 2 June, and on 11 June Prussia prohibited the wearing of SA brown shirts and associated insignia.
The next month Prussia passed a law against its officials holding membership in either the NSDAP or KPD.
Later in July, Goebbels was again tried, this time for “public insult”, and fined.
The government also placed the army officers on trial for “forming national socialist cells”.
Against this violent backdrop, Hitler’s party gained a shocking victory in the Reichstag, obtaining 107 seats (18.3%, 6,406,397 votes).
The Nazis became the second largest party in Germany.
In Bavaria the party gained 17.9% of the vote, though for the first time this percentage was exceeded by most other provinces: Oldenburg (27.3%), Braunschweig (26.6%), Waldeck (26.5%), Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22.6%), Lippe (22.3%) Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20.1%), Anhalt (19.8%), Thuringen (19.5%), Baden (19.2%), Hamburg (19.2%), Prussia (18.4%), Hessen (18.4%), Sachsen (18.3%), Lubeck (18.3%) and Schaumburg-Lippe (18.1%).
An unprecedented amount of money was thrown behind the campaign.
Well over one million pamphlets were produced and distributed; sixty trucks were commandeered for use in Berlin alone.
In areas where NSDAP campaigning was less rigorous, the total was as low as 9%.
The Great Depression was also a factor in Hitler’s electoral success.
Against this legal backdrop, the SA began its first major anti-Jewish action on 13 October 1930 when groups of brownshirts smashed the windows of Jewish-owned stores at Potsdamer Platz.

Hitler Takes Power (1931–1933)

On March 10, 1931, with street violence between the Rotfront and SA spiraling out of control, breaking all previous barriers and expectations, Prussia re-enacted its ban on brown shirts. Days after the ban SA-men shot dead two communists in a street fight, which led to a ban being placed on the public speaking of Goebbels, who sidestepped the prohibition by recording speeches and playing them to an audience in his absence.
Ernst Röhm, in charge of the SA, put Count Micah von Helldorff, a convicted murderer and vehement anti-Semite, in charge of the Berlin SA.
The deaths mounted up, with many more on the Rotfront side, and by the end of 1931 the SA suffered 47 deaths, and the Rotfront recorded losses of approximately 80.
Street fights and beer hall battles resulting in deaths occurred throughout February and April 1932, all against the backdrop of Adolf Hitler’s competition in the presidential election which pitted him against the monumentally popular Hindenburg. In the first round on 13 March, Hitler had polled over 11 million votes but was still behind Hindenburg.
The second and final round took place on 10 April: Hitler (36.8% 13,418,547) lost out to Paul von Hindenburg (53.0% 19,359,983) whilst KPD candidate Thälmann gained a meagre percentage of the vote (10.2% 3,706,759).
At this time, the Nazi party had just over 800,000 card-carrying members.
Three days after the presidential elections, the German government banned the NSDAP paramilitaries, the SA and the SS, on the basis of the Emergency Decree for the Preservation of State Authority.
This action was largely prompted by details which emerged at a trial of SA men for assaulting unarmed Jews in Berlin.
But after less than a month the law was repealed by Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany, on 30 May.
Such ambivalence about the fate of Jews was supported by the culture of anti-Semitism that pervaded the German public at the time.
Dwarfed by Hitler’s electoral gains, the KPD turned away from legal means and increasingly towards violence.
One resulting battle in Silesia resulted in the army being dispatched, each shot sending Germany further into a potential all-out civil war. By this time both sides marched into each other’s strongholds hoping to spark rivalry. Hermann Göring, as speaker of the Reichstag, asked the Papen government to prosecute shooters. Laws were then passed which made political violence a capital crime.
The attacks continued, and reached fever pitch when SA storm leader Axel Schaffeld was assassinated.
At the end of July, the Nazi party gained almost 14,000,000 votes, securing 230 seats in the Reichstag.

Energised by the incredible results, Hitler asked to be made Chancellor.
Franz von Papen (see right) offered the position of Vice Chancellor but Hitler refused.
Hermann Göring, in his position of Reichstag president, asked that decisive measures be taken by the government over the spate in murders of national socialists.
On 9 August, amendments were made to the Reichstrafgesetzbuch statute on ‘acts of political violence’, increasing the penalty to ‘lifetime imprisonment, 20 years hard labour or death’. Special courts were announced to try such offences.
When in power less than half a year later, Hitler would use this legislation against his opponents with devastating effect.
The law was applied almost immediately but did not bring the perpetrators behind the recent massacres to trial as expected. Instead, five SA men who were alleged to have murdered a KPD member in Potempa (Upper Silesia) were tried.
Adolf Hitler appeared at the trial as a defence witness, but on 22 August the five were convicted and sentenced to death.
On appeal, this sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in early September.
They would serve just over four months before Hitler freed all imprisoned Nazis in a 1933 amnesty.

The Nazi party lost 35 seats in the November 1932 election but remained the Reichstag’s largest party.
The most shocking move of the early election campaign was to send the SA to support a Rotfront action against the transport agency and in support of a strike.
After Chancellor Papen left office, he secretly told Hitler that he still held considerable sway with President Hindenburg and that he would make Hitler chancellor as long as he, Papen, could be the vice chancellor.

On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of a coalition government of the NSDAP-DNVP Party.
The SA and SS led torchlight parades throughout Berlin.
In the coalition government, three members of the cabinet were Nazis: Hitler, Wilhelm Frick (Minister of the Interior) and Hermann Göring (Minister Without Portfolio).
With Germans who opposed Nazism failing to unite against it, Hitler soon moved to consolidate absolute power.


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Great German Sculpture



Arno Breker  im  Atelier






Arno Breker  im  Atelier






Arno Breker  im  Atelier





‘WOUNDED HERO’
Arno Breker



‘ADOLF HITLER’
Arno Breker






‘RICHARD WAGNER’
Arno Breker




‘RICHARD WAGNER’
Arno Breker




‘ADOLF HITLER’
Arno Breker







‘FREDERICH  NIETSZCHE’
Arno  Breker





‘Διόνυσος’ – ‘DIONYSUS’
Arno Breker




‘HEROIC HEAD’
Arno Breker



‘HEROIC HEAD’
Arno Breker






‘BEREITSCHAFT’
(Readiness)
Arno Breker





‘Προμηθεύς’
‘PROMETHEUS’

Arno Breker




‘Προμηθεύς’
‘PROMETHEUS’

Arno Breker



‘Προμηθεύς’
‘PROMETHEUS’

Arno Breker





Arno Breker working on Prometheus





‘MALE NUDE TORSO’
Arno Breker





‘GENIUS DES SIEGERS’
(Spirit of Victory)
Arno Breker





‘ARYAN MAN’
Arno Breker







‘ANGEL  OF  DEATH’
Arno  Breker






‘DYING  WARRIOR’

Arno  Breker






‘DYING  WARRIOR’
(Bronze)
Arno  Breker





‘MALE NUDE RELIEF’
Arno  Breker







‘VICTORIOUS  WARRIOR’
Arno  Breker






DER RACHER
Arno Breker








‘KAMARADSCHAFT’
(Comradeship)
Arno Breker






‘KAMARADSCHAFT’
(Comradeship)
Arno Breker







‘DEPARTURE FOR BATTLE’
Arno Breker






‘DER RUFER’
Arno Breker






‘BEREITSCHAFT’
Arno Breker






‘DER BANNERTRAGER’
(Standard Bearer)
Arno Breker






‘EURIDICE and ORPHEUS’
Arno Breker






APOLLO and DAPHNE’
Arno Breker






‘YOU and ME’
Arno Breker







‘DER APFEL DES PARIS’
(The Apple of Paris)
Arno Breker






‘ST  SEBASTIAN’
Arno  Breker





‘OLYMPIA’
Arno Breker




‘OLYMPIA’
Arno Breker





‘TORSO DES ROSSBANDIGERS’
Arno Breker





‘ALEXANDER THE GREAT’
Arno Breker





‘ALEXANDER THE GREAT’
Arno Breker

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Great German Architecture

GREAT GERMAN ARCHITECTURE


Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and the architecture of Italian Andrea Palladio.
In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.
High neoclassicism was an international movement. Though neoclassical architecture employs the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture, it tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes.
Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are flatter; sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Its clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves.
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, the works of Leo von Klenze, Sir John Soane’s Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, DC in the United States. 
Glyptothek
München
Leo von Klenze – 1816 -1830
The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection ofGreek and Roman sculptures, (hence γλυπτο- glypto- “sculpture”, from the Greek verb γλύφειν glyphein “to carve”).
It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830.
Today the museum is a part of the Kunstareal.
Propyläen
München
 Leo von Klenze – 1862
The building constructed in Doric order was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and evokes the monumental entrance of the Propylaea for the Athenian Acropolis.
The gate was created as a memorial for the accession to the throne of Otto of Greece, a son of the principal King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
The reliefs and sculptures celebrating the Bavarian prince and the Greek War of Independence were created by Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler.

Ruhmeshalle
München 
 Leo von Klenze
Regensburg Walhalla
 Leo von Klenze 1830 – 1842

The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history — politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue”.
The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany.
The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology.
It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I.
Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze.
The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history.
Regensburg Walhalla
Interior
Regensburg Walhalla
Colonade
Altes Museum
Karl Friedrich Schinkel – (1781 – 1841)
The Altes Museum  was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family’s art collection.
The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel’s career.
Until 1845, it was called the Königliches Museum (Royal Museum).
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781, Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg – 9 October 1841, Berlin, Province of Brandenburg) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neo-gothic buildings.


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Die Neue Kunst
 
 
At the 1933 Nürnberg Reichsparteitag, the new Chancellor, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the dawn of an era of ‘New Art’ – and instituted the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture) to oversee the cultural life of Das Dritte Reich, (the Third Reich).
The Reichskulturkammer was headed by Dr. Paul Joseph Göbbels.
The Reichskulturkammer was to control all aspects of culture, and this included the fine arts, applied arts,  industrial design, sculpture, architecture and film.

On July 18, 1937, Hitler delivered a speech at the opening of the House of German Art in Munich, which was to take the place of the former “Glass Palace.”
In the collapse of Germany after the war, he said, the economic decline had been generally felt, the political decline had been denied by many, the cultural decline had not even been observed by the majority of the people.
It was an age of phrases and catchwords: in the economic sphere the hard facts of misery and unemployment deprived these phrases of their force: in the political sphere such phrases as “international solidarity” had more success and veiled from the German people the extent of the political collapse.
But in the long run the failure of the parliamentary-democratic form of government, copied from the West – a West which regardless of this democratic form still continued to extort from Germany whatever there remained to extort – defeated the phrase-mongers.
Far more lasting was the effect of these phrases in the cultural field, where they resulted in a complete confusion concerning the essential character of culture.
Here the influence of the Jews was paramount and through their control of the press they were able to intimidate those who desired to champion “the normal sound intelligence and instinct of men,” Art was said to be “an international experience,” and thus all comprehension of its intimate association with a people was stifled: it was said that there was no such thing as the art of a people or, better, of a race: there was only the art of a certain period.
Thus it was not Greeks who created the art of Greece, Romans the art of Rome, etc. – a particular period had found in each art its expression.
Art is a “time-conditioned phenomenon.”
So today there is not a German or a French art, ‘but a “modern art.”
This is to reduce art to the level of fashions in dress, with the motto “Every year something fresh” – Impressionism, Futurism, Cubism, perhaps also Dadaism.
These newly created art phrases would be comic, if they were not tragic.
The result was uncertainty in judgements passed on art and the silencing of those who might otherwise have protested against this Kulturbolschewismus, while the press continued to poison our sound appreciation of art. And just as in fashions one must wear “modern” clothes whether they are beautiful or not, so the great masters of the past were decried.
But true art is and remains eternal, it does not follow the law of the season’s fashions: its effect is that of a revelation arising from the depths of the essential character of a people which successive generations can inherit. But those who do not create for eternity do not readily talk of eternities: they seek to dim the radiance of these giants who reach out of the past into the future in order that contemporaries may discover their own tiny flames.
These facile daubers in art are but the products of a day: yesterday, non-existent: today, modern: tomorrow, out of date. The Jewish discovery that art was just the affair of a period was for them a godsend: theirs could be the art of the present time.
Theirs was a small art – small in form and substance – and at the same time intolerant of the masters of the past and the rivals of the present.
There was a conspiracy of incapacity and mediocrity against better work of any age.
The new rich, having no judgement of their own in art matters, accepted these artists at their own valuation.
It was only an attraction that these works of art were difficult to understand and on that account very costly: no one wished to admit lack of comprehension or insufficient means!
And if one does not oneself understand, probably one’s neighbor will not either, and he will admire one’s comprehension of obscurity.
For this “modern art” National Socialism desires to substitute a “German” art and an eternal art.
This House of German Art is designed for the art of the German people – not for an international art.
“The people in the flux of phenomena is the one constant point.
It is that which is abiding and permanent, and therefore art as the expression of the essential character of the abiding people must be an eternal monument, itself abiding and permanent; there can be therefore no standard of yesterday and today, of modern or un-modern: there can be only the standard of ‘valueless’ or ‘valuable,’ of ‘eternal’ or ‘transitory.
“And therefore in speaking of German art I shall see the standard for that art in the German people, in its character and life, in its feeling, its emotions, and its development.”
From the history of the development of our people we know that it is composed of a number of more or less distinct races which in the course of millennia through the formative influence of a certain outstanding racial kernel produced that mixture which we see before us in Our people today.
This force which formed the people in time past and which still today continues that formative activity lies in the same Aryan branch of mankind which we recognize not only as the support of our own civilization but of the earlier civilizations of the ancient world.
The way in which our people was composed has produced the many-sidedness of our own cultural development, but as we look upon the final result of this process we cannot but wish for an art which may correspond to the increasing homogeneity of our racial composition, and thus present in itself the characteristics of unity and homogeneity.
Many attempts have been made through the centuries to define what “to be German” really means.
I would not seek to give an explanation in the first instance.
I would rather state a law – a law previously expressed by a great German: “To be German is to be clear,” and that means that to be German is to be logical and true.
It is this spirit which has always lived in our people, which has inspired painters, sculptors, architects, thinkers, poets, and above all our musicians.
When on June 6, 1931, the Glass Palace was burned down there perished with it an immortal treasure of German art. The artists were called Romantics, and yet they were but the finest representatives of that German search for the real and true character of our people, for an honest and decent expression of this law of life divined by our people.
For it was not only their choice of subject which was decisive, but the clear and simple mode of rendering these sentiments.
Many of their original works are lost, we possess only copies or reproductions, but the works of these masters are removed by a great gulf from the pitiable products of our modern so-called “creative artists.”
These masters felt themselves to be Germans, and consequently they created works which should be valued as long as there should be a German people to appreciate them.
But these modern works we would also preserve as documents illustrating the depths of that decline into which the people had fallen.
The “Exhibition of Degenerate Art” is intended as a useful lesson.
During the long years in which I planned the formation of a new Reich I gave much thought to the tasks which would await us in the cultural cleansing of the people’s life: there was to be a cultural renascence as well as a political and economic reform.
I was convinced that peoples which have been trodden underfoot by the whole world of their day have all the greater duty consciously to assert their own value before their oppressors, and there is no prouder proof of the highest rights of a people to its own life than immortal cultural achievements.
I was therefore always determined that if fate should one day give us power I would discuss these matters with no one but would form my own decisions, for it is not given to all to have an understanding for tasks as great as these.
Among the plans which floated before me in my mind both during the war and after the collapse was the idea of building a great new exhibition palace in Munich; and many years ago I thought of the place where the building now stands.
In 1931 I feared that I should be anticipated and that the “men of November” would erect an exhibition building. Plans indeed were produced for an edifice.
But when we came to power in 1933 the plan had not been executed: the erection of the building was left to the Third Reich.
And the building is so unique, so individual, that it cannot be compared with anything else: it is a true monument for this city and more than that – for German art….
It represents a turning point, the first of the new buildings which will take their place among the immortal achievements of German artistic life.
But the House is not enough: it must house an Exhibition, and if now I venture to speak of art I can claim a title to do so from the contribution which I myself have made to the restoration of German art.
For our modern German state that I with my associates have created has alone brought into existence the conditions for a new, vigorous flowering of art.
It is not Bolshevist art collectors or their henchmen who have laid the foundations: we have provided vast sums for the encouragement of art, we have set before art itself great, new tasks.
As in politics, so in German art-life: we are determined to make a clean sweep of phrases.
Ability is the necessary qualification if an artist wishes his work to be exhibited here.
People have attempted to recommend modern art by saying that it is the expression of a new age: but art does not create a new age, it is the general life of peoples which fashions itself anew and therefore often seeks after a new expression.
A new epoch is not created by littérateurs but by the fighters, those who really fashion and lead peoples, who thus make history.
It is either impudent effrontery or stark stupidity to exhibit to the people of today works which perhaps ten or twenty thousand years ago might have been made by a man of the Stone Age.
They talk of primitive art, but they forget that it is not the function of art to retreat backward from the stage of development which a people has already reached: its sole function must be to symbolize that development.
The new age of today is at work on a new human type.
Men and women are to be more healthy, stronger: there is a new feeling of life, a new joy in life.
Never was humanity in its external appearance and in its frame of mind nearer to the ancient world than it is today.
This is the type of the new age.
The artist does not create for the artist: he creates for the people and we will see to it that henceforth the people will be called in to judge its art.
No one must say that the people has no understanding for a really valuable enrichment of its cultural life. Before the critics did justice to the genius of a Richard Wagner he had the people on his side, while the people has had nothing to do with so-called “modern art.”
The people regarded this art as the outcome of an impudent and unashamed arrogance or of a simply shocking lack of skill; it felt that this art-stammer – these achievements which might have been produced by untalented children of from eight to ten years old – could never be valued as an expression of our own times or of the German future.
When we know today that the development of millions of years repeats itself in every individual compressed into a few decades, then this art, we realize, is not “modern”; it is on the contrary in the highest degree “archaic,” far older probably than the Stone Age.
The people when it passes through these galleries will recognize in me its own spokesman and counsellor: it will draw a sigh of relief and express its glad agreement with this purification of art.
And that is decisive: an art which cannot count on the readiest and most intimate agreement of the great mass of the people, an art which must rely upon the support of small cliques, is intolerable.
Such an art does but endeavour to confuse, instead of gladly reinforcing, the sure and healthy instinct of a people.
The artist cannot stand aloof from his people.
This exhibition is but a beginning, yet the end of the artistic stultification of Germany has begun.
Now is the opportunity for youth to start its industrious apprenticeship, and when a sacred conscientiousness at last comes into its own, then I doubt not that the Almighty, from the mass of these decent creators of art, will once more raise up individuals to the eternal starry heaven of the imperishable God-favored artists of the great periods. We believe that especially today, when in so many spheres the highest individual achievements are being manifested, so also in art the highest value of personality will once again assert itself.




‘Germany wants again a “German Art,” and this art shall and will be of eternal value, as are all truly creative values of a people.
Should this art, however, again lack this eternal value for our people, then indeed it will mean that it also has no higher value today
When, therefore, the cornerstone of this building was laid, it was with the intention of constructing a temple, not for a so-called modern art, but for a true and everlasting German art, that is, better still, a House for the art of the German people.
It is therefore imperative for the artist to erect monuments, not so much to a period, but to his people.
For time is changeable, years come and go.
Anything born of and thriving on a certain epoch alone would perish with it.
And not only all which had been created before us would fall victim to this mortality, but also what is being created today or will be created in the future.
But the National-Socialists know of only one mortality, and that is the mortality of the people itself:
As long as a people exists, however, it is the fixed pole in the flight of fleeting appearances.
It is the quality of being and lasting permanence.
And, indeed, for this reason, art as an expression of the essence of this being, is an eternal monument.’
Adolf Hitler
 

‘Tag der Deutschen Kunst in München’


HITLER AND THE ARTS

“After being appointed chancellor in 1933 the first building Hitler had erected was not a monument to his own triumph but a massive art gallery.”
Hitler’s complaint to his field commanders after Winston Churchill refused peace terms in 1940 was, “It is a pity that I have to wage war on account of that drunk instead of serving the works of peace.”
The tasks of peace—grand architectural renovations and the promotion of German culture—were uppermost in Hitler’s mind, as Hermann Giesler has shown us throughout his memoir.
But not only Giesler.
After pondering the matter for 20 years in Spandau prison, Hitler’s other architect Albert Speer concluded that Hitler was always and with his whole heart an artist.
Hitler’s secretary Christa Schroeder recalled that his non-military conversation turned more and more to the arts.
Josef Goebbels provides numerous examples in his diaries.
In Jan.1942, after a long discussion with Hitler, he wrote: “The intensity of the Fuehrer’s longing for music, theatre and cultural relaxation is enormous.
The life he was then leading was “culturally empty,” the Fuehrer had told him, and he looked forward to the war’s end when he would “compensate for this by a dedication stronger than ever to the more beautiful sides of life.” 
Giesler, in charge of designing Hitler’s retirement home overlooking Linz. Hitler envisioned discussion of art, philosophy and matters of importance to the future of Europe by those invited to his home. “Ms. Braun,” whom he would marry when he retired after the war, would be the lady of the house.
Hitler was no dilettante.
His knowledge of architecture was enormous, along with many other subjects.
He had supported himself from 1909-1913 in Vienna and Munich by drawing and painting architectural landmarks in watercolor and oil, selling them through dealers.
His Munich landlord, Herr Popp, said he often found his lodger reading the works of Schopenhauer and Plato, along with war histories.
Throughout the First World War Hitler carried with him a pocket edition of Schopenhauer’s ‘The World as Will and Idea’.
His enthusiasm for Richard Wagner’s music began as a 12 year-old boy attending a performance of Lohengrin in Linz.
He’s said to have seen ‘Tristan und Isolde’ up to 40 times and ‘Der Meistersinger’ one hundred times. He could hum or whistle all its themes.
In 1942, Hitler became equally enthused about Austrian-born composer Anton Bruckner.
He considered Bruckner’s Seventh Symphony the equivalent of Beethoven’s Ninth.
Always generous with his own funds, Hitler personally financed a centre of Bruckner studies, had his organ repaired and added to his library; he designed a monument in his honour in Linz; endowed a Bruckner Orchestra and subsidized the publication of the composer’s original scores.
No other leader of the time came close to that dedication. “Stalin as well as Lenin, Mussolini, Mao Tse-tung and their ilk … had never set foot in an art gallery.”
While ostensibly better-educated, Churchill, Roosevelt and Wilson were also far below Hitler’s level of cultural awareness.
It turns out, by a close study of Adolf Hitler’s biographers, memoirists, associates and the record itself, that his idea of national greatness was only fulfilled in a true national art and culture—reminiscent of the ancient Greeks he admired, wherein magnificent physical beauty combines with a brilliant mind and noble soul.


click here for more information about Adolf Hitler
and

Hitler my young Friend‘ by August Kubizek

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Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)

Paul Ludwig Troost

The building was constructed from 1934 to 1937 following plans of architect Paul Ludwig Troost as the Third Reich’s first monumental structure of Nazi architecture and as Nazi propaganda.
The museum, then called Haus der deutschen Kunst (“House of German Art”), was opened in March 1937 as a showcase Germany’s finest art.
The inaugural exhibition was the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung (“Great German art exhibition”), which was an edifying contrast to the condemned modern art on display in the concurrent Entartete Kunst exhibition.
On 15 and 16 October 1939, the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung inside the Haus der Deutschen Kunst was complemented by the monumental Tag der deutschen Kunst celebration of “2,000 years of Germanic culture” where luxuriously draped floats (one of them carrying a 5 meter tall golden Nazi Reichsadler) and thousands of actors in historical costumes paraded down Prinzregentenstraße for hours in the presence of Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley, Reinhard Heydrich, and many other high-ranking Nazis, with minor events taking place in the Englischer Garten nearby.

The 1939 Tag der Deutschen Kunst was documented by a group of hobby cinematographers on 16 mm Kodachrome color movie, the resulting 30-minute film is still pristine today due to Kodachrome’s unusual archival properties, and is available in a variety of editions on VHS and DVD, such as Farben 1939 – ‘Tag der Deutschen Kunst in München’. (see excerpts above)



Professor Paul Ludwig Troost and Adolf Hitler

Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art) – detail
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art) – detail
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
interior
Paul Ludwig Troost

Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost
Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost

Haus der deutschen Kunst – (House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost





REICH ADLER
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – PLAN – BERLIN
Albert Speer






‘Der Bau der Reichskanzlei I’
(The Building of the Reich’s Chancellery I)
Erich Merker




‘Der Bau der Reichskanzlei II’
(The Building of the Reich’s Chancellery II)
Erich Merker






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MARMORGALERIE – BERLIN
Albert Speer


In late January 1938, Adolf Hitler officially assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery around the corner on Voßstraße, a branch-off of Wilhelmstraße, requesting that the building be completed within a year.
Hitler commented that Bismarck’s Old Chancellery was “fit for a soap company” but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. It nevertheless remained his official residence with its recently refurbished representation rooms on the groundfloor and private rooms on the upper floor where Hitler lived in the so called Führerwohnung (“Führer apartment”).
Hitler placed the entire northern side of the Voßstraße at Speer’s disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls and salons which “will make an impression on people”.
Speer was given a blank cheque — Hitler stated that the cost of the project was immaterial — and was instructed that the building be of solid construction and that it be finished by the following January in time for the next New Year diplomatic reception to be held in the new building.
Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock.
In the end it cost over 90 Million Reichsmark, well over one billion dollars today.
In his memoirs, Speer described the impression of the Reichskanzlei on a visitor:
The series of rooms comprising the approach to Hitler’s reception gallery were decorated with a rich variety of materials and colours and totalled 220 m (725 ft) in length.
The gallery itself was 145 m (480 ft) long. Hitler’s own office was 400 square meters in size.
From the exterior, the chancellery had a stern, authoritarian appearance.
From the Wilhelmplatz, visitors would enter the Chancellery through the Court of Honour (Ehrenhof). The building’s main entrance was flanked by two bronze statues by sculptor Arno Breker: “Wehrmacht” and “Partei” (“Armed Forces” and “Party”).
Hitler is said to have been greatly impressed by the building and was uncharacteristically effusive with his praise for Speer, lauding the architect as a “genius”.
The chancellor’s immense study was a particular favourite of the dictator.
The large marble-topped table served as an important part of the Nazi leader’s military headquarters, the study being used for military conferences from 1944 on. On the other hand, the Cabinet room was never used for its intended purpose.






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – MOSAIC HALL – BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Entrance to Ante Room)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Entrance to Mosaic Hall)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Entrance to Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer



NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Hitler’s Study)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Cabinet Room)
Albert Speer




NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer

NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Reception Room)
Albert Speer
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
(Adolf Hitler’s Private Apartment)
Albert Speer
Bronze Wall Sconce
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN

(Main Entrance)

Albert Speer




Main Entrance Ceiling
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer





Main Entrance
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer






MAIN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer



GARDEN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – DRAWING
Albert Speer






GARDEN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer




GARDEN FAÇADE – NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer






MAIN FAÇADE – NIGHT
NEUE REICHSKANZEI – BERLIN
Albert Speer







GERMANIA
Albert Speer

Welthauptstadt Germania (“World Capital Germania”) refers to the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler’s vision for the future of Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Albert Speer, the “first architect of the Third Reich”, produced many of the plans for the rebuilt city in his capacity as overseer of the project, only a small portion of which was realized between the years 1937-1943 when construction took place.
Some projects, such as the creation of a great East-West city axis, which included broadening Charlottenburger Chaussee (today Straße des 17. Juni) and placing the Berlin victory column in the center, far away from the Reichstag, where it originally stood, succeeded.
Others, however, such as the creation of the Große Halle (Great Hall), had to be shelved owing to the beginning of war.
A great number of the old buildings in many of the planned construction areas were however demolished before the war and eventually defeat stopped the plans.
The combined name “Welthauptstadt Germania” for the project was coined by Albert Speer in his 1969 memoirs Inside the Third Reich. 





MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG – GERMANIA
Albert Speer

According to the records of Hitler’s Table Talk of 8 June 1942 Hitler toyed with the idea of renaming the renewed Berlin into ‘Germania’, in order to give a Greater Germanic world empire a clear central point:
The term Welthauptstadt (World Capital) was already used by Hitler three months prior on the night between the 11th and 12th of March 1942 in the Wolf’s Lair:
“Berlin as the World Capital will only be comparable with Ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Rome! What are London and Paris compared to that!”
—Werner Jochmann: Adolf Hitler. Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941–1944, p. 318. Munich, 1980.
The title ‘Welthauptstadt’ was chosen because it was felt that Berlin’s architecture was at that time too provincial and that there was need to put Berlin on a par with and exceed the quality of other world capitals such as London, Paris and especially Rome.



MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG – GERMANIA
Albert Speer



 GROßE HALLE – GERMANIA
Albert Speer


The sketch of the Volkshalle given by Hitler to Speer shows a traditional gabled pronaos supported by ten columns, a shallow rectangular intermediate block and behind it the domed main building.
However, there was little about Speer’s elaboration of the sketch that might be termed Doric, except perhaps for the triglyphs in the entablature, supported by the geminated red granite columns with their Egyptian palm-leaf capitals, previously employed by Speer in the portico outside Hitler’s study on the garden side of the new Chancellery (see above).




 GROßE HALLE – GERMANIA
Albert Speer


Speer’s Große Halle was to be the capital’s most important and impressive building in terms of its size and symbolism. Visually it was to have been the architectural centrepiece of Berlin as the world capital (Welthauptstadt).
Its dimensions were so large that it would have dwarfed every other structure in Berlin, including those on the north-south axis itself.
The oculus of the building’s dome, 46 metres (151 ft) in diameter, would have accommodated the entire rotunda of Hadrian’s Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica.
The dome of the Volkshalle was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,033 × 1,033 ft) and 74 metres (243 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). 
The resemblance of the Volkshalle to the Pantheon is far more obvious when their interiors are compared.
The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Hitler’s tribunal.
From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.
The three concentric tiers of seats enclosing a circular arena 140 metres (460 ft) in diameter owe nothing to the Pantheon but resemble the seating arrangements in Ludwig Ruff’s Congress Hall at Nuremberg, which was modeled on the Colosseum.
Other features of the Volkshalle’s interior are clearly indebted to Hadrian’s Pantheon: the coffered dome, the pillared zone, which here is continuous, except where it flanks the huge niche on the north side.
The second zone in the Pantheon, consisting of blind windows with intervening pilasters, is represented in Speer’s building by a zone above the pillars consisting of uniform, oblong shallow recesses.
The coffered dome rests on this zone. 
Hitler’s aspirations to world domination and the establishment of his New Order, already evident from architectural and decorative features of the new Chancellery, are even more clearly expressed here.
External symbols suggest that the domed hall was where Hitler as cosmocrator (Herr der Welt) would appear before his Herrenvolk: On top of the dome’s lantern was an eagle grasping in its claws not the usual swastika but the globe of the Earth (Erdball).
This combination of eagle and ball was well known in imperial Roman iconography, for example, the restored statue of Claudius holding a ball and eagle in his right hand.
The vast dome, on which it rested, as with Hadrian’s Pantheon, symbolically represented the vault of the sky spanning Hitler’s world empire.
The globe on the dome’s lantern was enhanced and emphasized by two monumental sculptures by Breker, each 15 metres high, which flanked the north façade of the building: at its west end Atlas supporting the heavens, at its east end Tellus supporting the Earth.
Both mythological figures were according to Speer, chosen by Hitler himself.




GROßE HALLE – GERMANIA
Albert Speer






ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer



ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer




GERMAN PAVILLION – PARIS
Albert Speer

Great German Art



The fine art, architecture, sculpture, graphic art, and applied art of Germany and Austria 1845-1945
.

‘ Die Toteninsel’

‘(The Isle of the Dead’)
Arnold Böcklin – (1827–1901)
‘Die Toteninsel’ is the best known painting of Symbolist artist Arnold Böcklin .
Böcklin produced several different versions of the mysterious painting between 1880 and 1886.

All versions of Isle of the Dead depict a desolate and rocky islet seen across an expanse of dark water.
A small rowboat is just arriving at a water gate and seawall on shore.
An oarsman maneuvers the boat from the stern.
In the bow, facing the gate, is a standing figure clad entirely in white.
Just behind the figure is a white, festooned object commonly interpreted as a coffin.
The tiny islet is dominated by a dense grove of tall, dark cypress trees — associated by long-standing tradition with cemeteries and mourning — which is closely hemmed in by precipitous cliffs.
Furthering the funerary theme are what appear to be sepulchral portals and windows penetrating the rock faces.
Böcklin himself provided no public explanation as to the meaning of the painting, though he did describe it as “a dream picture: it must produce such a stillness that one would be awed by a knock on the door.”
The title, which was conferred upon it by the art dealer Fritz Gurlitt in 1883, was not specified by Böcklin, though it does derive from a phrase in an 1880 letter he sent to the painting’s original commissioner.
Many observers have interpreted the oarsman as representing the boatman Charon who conducted souls to the underworld in Greek mythology.
The water would then be either the River Styx or the River Acheron and his white-clad passenger a recently deceased soul transiting to the afterlife.

The model for the rocky islet was likely Pondikonisi, a small island near Corfu which is adorned with a small chapel amid a cypress grove.
(Another, less likely candidate is the island of Ponza in the Tyrrhenian Sea.)
The third version – and undoubtedly the best version –  was painted in 1883 for Böcklin’s dealer Fritz Gurlitt.
In this version one of the burial chambers in the rocks on the right bears Böcklin’s own initials: “A.B.”. 
In 1933, the painting was put up for sale, and a noted Böcklin admirer, Adolf Hitler, acquired it. He hung it first at the Berghof in Obersalzberg and, then after 1940, in the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

‘Abundantia – The Gifts of the Sea’
Hans Makart



‘Abundantia – The Gifts of the Earth’
Hans Makart



‘Die Niljagd der Kleopatra’ – ‘Cleopatra’s Nile Hunt’
Hans Markart




‘Der Tod Der Kleopatra’ – ‘The Death of Cleopatra’
Hans Makart 

One of the favourite artists of the young Adolf Hitler was Hans Makart.

Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 – October 3, 1884) was a 19th-century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.
Makart’s work, like those of other academic artists of the time, consisted of allegorical painting and history painting as seen in ‘Catherina Carnaro’, ‘Dianas Hunt’, T’he Entry of Charles V into Antwerp’, ‘Abundantia’ (see above), ‘Spring’, ‘Summer’, T’he Death of Cleopatra’ (see above), ‘Cleopatra’s Nile Hunt’, (see above) ‘The Five Senses’, and ‘Bacchus and Ariadne’.
He was considered the Austrian rival to the French William-Adolphe Bouguereau.
Within Austria, his nearest competitor was considered to be Hans Canon, and he was associated with the sculptor Viktor Tilgner, who travelled with him to Italy.
Aside from his clear influence on the academic art and high culture of Vienna at the time, Makart also influenced a range of painters and decorators who followed him, including many who rebelled against his style—the most notable being Gustav Klimt, who is said to have idolized him. Klimt’s early style is based in historicism and has clear similarities to Makart’s paintings. The entire decorative focus of Jugendstil, the Austrian Art Nouveau of which Klimt was a part, arose in an environment in which Makart had put the decorative aspects of art in the forefront. Some have also suggested that primacy of sexual symbolism in Jugendstil artworks were influenced by the sensuality in many of Makart’s paintings.

Adolf Hitler viewing Markart’s Paintings in Wien – 1937

Anselm Feuerbach – Selbstbildnis

‘Das Urteil des Paris’
(The Judgement of Paris)
Anselm Feuerbach


‘Nackte Junge mit einer Flöte’
(Nude Boy with a Flute)

One of the favourite artists of the young Adolf Hitler was Anselm Feuerbach.
Anselm Feuerbach (12 September 1829 – 4 January 1880) was a German painter.
He was the leading classicist painter of the German 19th-century school.
Feuerbach was born at Speyer, the son of the well-known archaeologist Joseph Anselm Feuerbach and the grandson of the legal scholar Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach.
After having passed through the art schools of Düsseldorf and Munich, he went to Antwerp and subsequently to Paris, where he benefited by the teaching of Couture, and produced his first masterpiece, Hafiz at the Fountain in 1852.
He subsequently worked at Karlsruhe, and then Venice.
In Venice, he fell under the spell of the greatest school of colourists, and several of his work demonstrate a close study of the Italian masters.
He then proceeded to Rome and then Vienna.
In 1873, he became professor in the Vienna Academy.
He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.
He was steeped in classic knowledge, and his figure compositions have the statuesque dignity and simplicity of Greek art.
He was the first to realize the danger arising from contempt of technique, that mastery of craftsmanship was needed to express even the loftiest ideas, and that an ill-drawn coloured cartoon can never be the supreme achievement in art.

click here for more information about Adolf Hitler
and
Hitler my young Friend‘ by August Kubizek

‘DIE ABSCHEIDUNG’ – (1874)

(THE DEPOSITION)

Arnold Böcklin – (1827–1901)



Alexander Frenz, Illustration zu Chamberlains Richard Wagner

Paul von Joukowsky – Parsifal – Die große Gralsszene, Gouache, 1882,

Paul von Joukowsky – Bühnenbildentwurf zu Parsifal – Gemälde ausgeführt von Max Brückner – 1882

Richard Wagner – Franz Von Lenbach – German Art

Hans Olde – ‘Nietzsche on his Sickbed’ – (1899)

Hans Olde – ‘Frederiche Nietzsche’ – (1899)



Max Liebermann – ‘Bildnis Richard Straus






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‘SIGMUND FREUD’
Ferdinand Schmutzer (1870-1928)
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‘RICHARD  STRAUSS’
Ferdinand Schmutzer (1870-1928)

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Ferdinand Schmutzer (1870-1928)

Schmutzer came from a traditional Viennese artistic family.
His great-grandfather, Jacob Matthias Schmutzer founded the Imperial Engraver-Academie in Vienna.
Like his grandfather and father worked, Ferdinand Schmutzer first with sculpture, but after studying painting at the Academy.
A study in the Netherlands woke influence of Rembrandt van Rijn, his interest in etching .
Soon Schmutzer was celebrated for his portraits of Viennese society.
Prominent contemporaries such as Sigmund Freud , Albert Einstein , Emperor Franz Joseph , the Vienna Philharmonic and Karl Lueger sat for him.
Schmutzer presented his work internationally and received several prizes and awards.
A particular innovation was the use of large formats which until then were unknown to the art of etching.
In 1901 Schmutzer became a member of the Vienna Secession, and by 1908 he was an acknowledged master of his art as professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
In addition to the large sizes, he introduced new techniques, experimenting with new types of needles. From 1922 to 1924 he was Rector of the Academy.
In 1928, at  58 years old, Schmutzer died in Vienna, in his villa.




‘KAISER WILHELM  II’
George Jahn
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‘VERLORENES  PARADIES’ – (PARADISE  LOST)
George Jahn
for more information about George Jahn (in German) go to http://georg-jahn-1869.de/

‘BOYS ON THE BEACH’
George Jahn

‘SELF  PORTRAIT’
Hans Thoma (1839 – 1924)

Hans Thoma (October 2, 1839 – November 7, 1924) was a well known and well listed German painter and print maker.
He started his life as a painter of clock faces.
In 1859 he entered the Karlsruhe Academy where he studied under Johann Wilhelm Schirmer (1825-1903) (specialist in landscape painting) and Ludwig des Coudres (1820-1878).
He left the Academy at the end of 1866 and moved to Dusseldorf.
There he met Otto Scholderer and went to Paris in May 1868.
In Paris he was influenced by Gustave Courbet (1831-1877). In spite of his studies under various contemporary masters, his art has little in common with modern ideas and is partly formed by his early impressions of the simple idyllic life of his native district, partly by his sympathy with the early German masters, particularly Altdorf and Cranach.
In his love of detail in nature, in his precise drawing of outline, and in his preference for local color, he has distinct affinities with the Pre-Raphaelites.
In 1890 he had his first successful exhibition at the Munich Kunstverein.
He subsequently joined the Munich succession.
In 1899 Thoma was made director of a gallery in Karlsruhe and was appointed professor at the art academy there. During his career he received many honors.

‘DER  VERLORENE  SOHN’ – (The Prodigal Son)
Hans Thoma (1839 – 1924)

‘ADAM  AND  EVE’
Hans Thoma (1839 – 1924)

‘SELF  PORTRAIT’
Joseph Uhl  –  (1877-1945)
Born in New York, Joseph Uhl moved to Germany at an early age.
At the Academy of Munich, he studied painting and etching.
As the First World War ended, Uhl who up to that time had concentrated mainly on painting, began to create etchings and engravings of children, nudes, general figure studies and allegorical images.
His work in this genre owes much to the German Jugendstil movement.

‘MORNING  SWIM’

‘FLUTEBOY’
Joseph Uhl  –  (1877-1945)
‘SOMMERWONNE’ – (SUMMER  JOY)
Joseph Uhl  –  (1877-1945)

‘STUDY  OF  A  NUDE  BOY’
Julian Alden Weir – (1852-1919)

‘JUNGES  PAAR  AUF  LICHTUNG’
Hermann Moest, 1868 -1945
Born on 5 December 1868, in Karlsruhe, Germany, Moest was the son of the sculptor Karl Friedrich Moest 1838-1927).
After being instructed by his father, Moest solidified his knowledge and skills from 1885 to 1888 at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe.
After this he studied under Otto Seitz (1846-1912) and Alexander von Liezen-Mayer (1839-1898) at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich.
From 1914 he lived and worked in Berlin, becoming an established  figure painter and illustrator.Hermann Moest married on 1 October 1904 in Hannover, Emma Priscilla Benfey.
He died on 10 December 1945 in Berlin.

‘AKT  MIT  BOGEN’
Hermann Moest, 1868 -1945

‘NUDE  EPHEBE  IN  HEROIC  POSE’
Georg von Hoesslin (1851-1923)

George (Georg) von Hoesslin (1851-1923) is an interesting figure in art in view of his origins and study. German by heritage, but born in Hungary and educated in the United States, after his family emigrated to North America in 1856.
In 1870 he wanted to study art and returned to Europe (München) where he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts.
In München, (Munich), he trained under Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829 -1 895), a German history painter. He traveled to Rome and Venice for additional studies later on.
In 1880 he returned to Boston, Mass.
He made return trips to München after his return to America.
His paintings are displayed in Museums in Boston (Museum of Fine Art) and in Europe.
This drawing is not signed but has von Hoesslin’s estate stamp on the reverse and came from his estate (Nachlass George Von Hoesslin stamp on the reverse).
The drawing is probably a preparatory study for an historical painting, part of his oeuvre of portraits and historical paintings.
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MAX KLINGER

‘DER  ARBEND’  –  (The Evening)
Max  Klinger

Max Klinger (February 18, 1857 – July 5, 1920) was a German Symbolist painter, sculptor, printmaker, and writer.
Klinger was born in Leipzig and studied in Karlsruhe.
An admirer of the etchings of Menzel and Goya, he shortly became a skilled and imaginative engraver in his own right.
He began creating sculptures in the early 1880s.
From 1883-1893 he lived in Rome, and became increasingly influenced by the Italian Renaissance and antiquity.

‘THE  JUDGEMENT  OF  PARIS’
Max  Klinger

‘GÖTTER  IM  SURF’  –  (Gods  in  the  Surf)
Max  Klinger



‘TRITON UND NEREIDE’ – 1895
Max  Klinger

 ‘THE DEATH OF CAESAR’
Max Klinger

The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by approximately forty Roman senators who called themselvesLiberators.
Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in the Theatre of Pompey on theIdes of March (March 15) 44 BC.
Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic at the time, having recently been declared dictator perpetuoby the Senate.
This declaration made several senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favour of tyranny.
The ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators’ civil war and, ultimately, to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.

‘BEETHOVEN’
Max  Klinger
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‘DIE  WASSERFRAU’  –  (The Lady of the Waters)
Hermann Prell (April 29, 1854 – May 18, 1922)


‘THE LORELEI’

Edward von Steinle – (1810-1886)

Eduard Von Steinle (born Vienna, 2 July 1810; died Frankfurt, 19 Sept., 1886) was a historical painter and member of the Nazarene movement.
Steinle came successively under the influence of the painters Leopold Kupelweiser, Johann Overbeck, and Peter von Cornelius, and was thus introduced into the methods of the German painters who had formed themselves into a school in Rome, the Nazarenes.
Steinle went himself several times to Rome, but preferred to work in Germany.
He received his first large commission, the painting of the chapel of the Castle of Rheineck, while living in Frankfurt; a second one was for work in the Hall of the Emperors (Kaisersaal) in Frankfurt, where he painted the pictures of Albert I and Ferdinand III.
These commissions and his friendship with Philipp Veit and the Brentano family decided him to take up his permanent residence in Frankfurt.
From 1850 he was professor of historical painting at the Städel Art Institute of Frankfurt. Like his friend Schwind he was one of the painters of the Romantic School who were largest in their scope.
Like Schwind also he was probably more adept in the art of painting ordinary subjects. 
Besides his work at Rheineck he painted cycles of pictures in the Castle of Kleinheubach, in the Church of St. Aegidius at Münster, and in the Church of Our Lady in Aachen.
He also painted the groups of angels in the choir of Cologne cathedral, and did part of the work in the apse of the choir of the Minster in Strasbourg and in the imperial cathedral in Frankfurt.
He also painted frescoes showing the historical development of civilization on the stairway of the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne.
Among Steinle’s smaller religious pictures are the enthroned Madonna holding the Child while an angel plays a musical instrument in front of them, the Visitation, the Holy Family at the Spring, Mary Magdalen seeking Christ, Christ Walking with His Disciples, the Legend of St. Euphrosyne, and the Great Penitentiary.
Among his paintings that are not directly religious are: the Warder of the Tower, the Fiddler, the Sibyl, the Lorelei (see above), and the pictures of the story of Parsifal; no less remarkable are his illustrations of Shakespeare, and especially those to accompany Brentano’s writings.


‘DER TÜRMER’
(The Tower Watchman)
Edward von Steinle – (1810-1886)

‘Ein Wiederfinder’
Eduard Veith

‘IM WALDE – DES KNABEN WUNDERHORN’
(In the Forest – The Boy’s Magical Horn)
Schwind von Moritz – (1804-1871)
Moritz von Schwind (January 21, 1804 – February 8, 1871) was an Austrian painter, born in Vienna.
Moritz von Schwind received rudimentary training and spent a happy and carefree youth in Vienna. Among his companions was the composerSchubert, some of whose songs he illustrated.
In 1828, the year of Schubert’s death, he moved to Munich, where he befriended the painter Schnorr and enjoyed the guidance of Cornelius, then director of the Academy.
In 1834 he was commissioned to decorate King Ludwig’s new palace with wall paintings illustrating the works of the poet Tieck.
In the revival of art in Germany, Schwind held as his own the sphere of poetic fancy.
He decorated a villa in Leipzig with the story of Cupid and Psyche, and further justified his title of poet-painter with designs from the Niebelungenlied and Tasso’s Gerusalemme for the walls of the castle of Hohenschwangau in Bavarian Tirol.
From the year 1844 dates his residence in Frankfurt during which he created some of his finest easel pictures, most notably the “Singers’ Contest” in the Wartburg (1846), as well as designs for the Goethe celebration.
In 1847 Schwind returned to Munich on being appointed professor in the academy.
Eight years later his fame was at its height on the completion in the castle of the Wartburg of wall pictures illustrative of the “Singers’ Contest” and of the history of Elizabeth of Hungary.
The compositions received universal praise, and at a grand musical festival in their honour, Schwind himself was one of the violinists.
In 1857 he visited England to report officially to King Ludwig on the Manchester art treasures.
So diversified were his gifts that he turned his hand to church windows and joined his old friend Schnorr in designs for the painted glass in Glasgow Cathedral.
Towards the close of his career, with broken health and his powers on the wane, he revisited Vienna. During this time, he created the cycle from the legend of Melusine and the designs commemorative of chief musicians which decorate the foyer of the Vienna State Opera. Cornelius writes, “You have translated the joy of music into pictorial art.”
Schwind’s genius was lyrical – he drew inspiration from chivalry, folk-lore, and the songs of the people.
Schwind died in Pöcking in Bavaria, and was buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich.
The title ‘Des Knaben Wunderhorn’ was used by Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) for one of his song-cycles.

‘ROSE’
Schwind von Moritz – (1804-1871)
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LUDWIG VON HOFMANN

Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945) – working on his self-portrait
Ludwig von Hofmann (August 17, 1861 – August 23, 1945) was a German painter.
Born in Darmstadt, 1861, Ludwig von Hofmann first studied law in Bonn from 1880 to 1883.
He then commenced studies in art at the Dresden Academy (1883-1886) and in the master class of Ferdinand Keller (1886-1888).
In the following year, Ludwig von Hofmann enrolled at the Academie Julien, Paris.
There he was strongly impressed by the art of contemporary French painters, such as Puvis de Chavannes, Albert Besnard and Maurice Denis.
Ludwig von Hofmann returned to Germany in 1890 and settled in Berlin for the following thirteen years.
Ludwig von Hofmann’s years in Berlin were very eventful.
There he was a founding member of both ‘The Eleven’ and the ‘Berlin Secession’.
During this period, Hofmann was also a founding member of the influential arts periodical, Pan.
He contributed numerous illustrations to Pan, including the famous cover decoration.
As Ludwig von Hofmann’s reputation grew, his circle of acquaintances and associates would include such masters of art and literature as Arnold Bocklin, Edward Munch, Max Klinger, Gerhard Hauptmann and Stefan George.
In 1898, none other than Rainer Maria Rilke dedicated two of his poems to Ludwig von Hofmann and his art.
In 1903, Ludwig von Hofmann accepted the post of Professor at the Archducal School of Art, in Weimar. During his years at Weimar, he devoted much of his time to painting commissioned murals.
Collectors of his art at this time included the Empress of Austria and the novelist, Thomas Mann.
He died in 1945.
His style was impressionist, and he painted many paintings, such as his well-known “Rain”, in a mixture of impressionist and classical.



‘FRÜHLING’ – (SPRING)
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)


‘Idyll’- 1896
 Ludwig Von Hoffman – (1861 – 1945) 


‘NAKED  BOATMEN  AND  YOUTHS’
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)

‘MALE  NUDE  STUDY’
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)

‘ADAM IN PARADISICAL LANDSCAPE’ – (detail)
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)

‘FRUEHLINGSSTURM’
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)

 ‘STUDY – DIONYSIAN GROUP’
(Meadow Dance). Circa 1900
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861-1945)

‘BADENDE  KNABEN’
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)



‘BADENDE JUNGEN AM BACH’
(Boys Bathing in a Stream)
Max Pietschmann  – (1865-1952)

‘MÄNNLICHER AKT IN HÜGELIGER BIRKENLANDSCHAFT’
R Kobel


‘SELF  PORTRAIT’
Lovis Corinth – (1885 – 1925)
Lovis Corinth (21 July 1858 – 17 July 1925) was a German painter and printmaker whose mature work realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism.
Corinth studied in Paris and Munich, joined the Berlin Secession group, later succeeding Max Liebermann as the group’s president.
His early work was naturalistic in approach.
Corinth was initially antagonistic towards the expressionist movement, but after a stroke in 1911 his style loosened and took on many expressionistic qualities.
His use of color became more vibrant, and he created portraits and landscapes of extraordinary vitality and power.
Corinth’s subject matter also included nudes and biblical scenes.

‘CRUCIFIED  THIEF’
Lovis Corinth – (1885 – 1925)

“MARTYRDOM’
Lovis Corinth – (1885 – 1925)

“PARADISE’ (1912)
Lovis Corinth – (1885 – 1925)

‘DIE  JUGEND DES  ZEUS’  –  (The Childhood of Zeus)
Lovis Corinth – (1885 – 1925)

‘STUDY OF A NUDE YOUTH’
Julius Christian Rehder – (1861-1955)


‘IDYLLE’
Gustav Klimpt – (1862 – 1918)

‘Pallas Athene’
Gustav Klimpt  – (1862 – 1918)

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.
His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects.
Klimt’s primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism—nowhere is this more apparent than in his numerous drawings in pencil
Klimt’s work is often distinguished by elegant gold or coloured decoration, spirals and swirls, and phallic shapes used to conceal the more erotic positions of the drawings upon which many of his paintings are based. This can be seen in Judith I (1901), and in The Kiss (1907–1908), and especially in Danaë (1907). One of the most common themes Klimt used was that of the dominant woman, the femme fatale.
Art historians note an eclectic range of influences contributing to Klimt’s distinct style, including Egyptian, Minoan, Classical Greek, and Byzantine inspirations.
Klimt was also inspired by the engravings of Albrecht Dürer, late medieval European painting, and Japanese Rimpa school.
His mature works are characterized by a rejection of earlier naturalistic styles, such as The Glasgow School, from which he was heavily influenced, and make use of symbols or symbolic elements to convey psychological ideas and emphasize the “freedom” of art from traditional culture.
He was keenly interested in exploring Freudian issues surrounding psychoanalysis in his works.
In his work Jurisprudence there is a focus on Freudian issues of sexual repression, and castration theory.
The three sirens in the painting look down at a withered man reproachfully, and he is shamed by his nakedness. The maw of the octopus is opened and level with the man’s genitalia connoting some sort of castration. Freudian issues gave his work a dark intricacy that would be highly influential for future artists.
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FERDINAND KELLER

‘DER SEE’
(The Lake)
Ferdinand Keller – (1842-1922)

Ferdinand Keller (born 5 August 1842 in Karlsruhe; died 8 July 1922 in Baden-Baden) was a German painter.
He was educated at Karlsruhe. In 1857, he accompanied his father and brother to Brazil, and there sketched diligently from nature in the tropical forests until 1862, when he became a student of landscape painting under Schirmer in Karlsruhe, and of figure painting under Canon in Karlsruhe in 1863.

He studied in Rome from 1863 to 1867. In 1881, he was appointed director of the Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsruhe.
He ranked among the chief representatives of colorism in Germany.
His works embrace Brazilian landscapes, allegorical and historical paintings and portraits. Among his sitters were members of the Imperial family.
He became more widely known through his successful competition for the painting of the curtain in the New Theatre at Dresden, which he executed in 1876.
Among other works are ‘Victory of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden over the Turks at Salankamen, 1691’ (1879), ‘Hero Finding the Body of Leander’ (1880), ‘Triumphal Progress of Pallas Athene before Elector Ruprect’ (1886, in the aula of the University of Heidelberg) and ‘Apotheosis of William the Victorious’ (1888).





‘EIN KLASSISCHER LANDSCHAFT’
(A Classical Landscape)
Ferdinand Keller – (1842-1922)





‘DAS GRAB VON BÖCKLIN’
(The Grave of Böcklin)
Ferdinand Keller – (1842-1922)


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FRANZ VON STUCK



‘SPIRIT  OF  VICTORY’
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)
Franz Stuck (February 24, 1863 – August 30, 1928) was a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.
Stuck was born at Tettenweis, in Bavaria.
From an early age he displayed an affinity for drawing and caricature. To begin his artistic education in 1878 he went to Munich, where he would settle for life.
From 1881 to 1885 Stuck attended the Munich Academy.
He first made a name with cartoons for Fliegende Blätter, and vignette designs for programmes and book decoration.
In 1889 he exhibited his first paintings at the Munich Glass Palace, winning a gold medal for ‘The Guardian of Paradise’.
In 1892 Stuck co-founded the Munich Secession, and also executed his first sculpture, ‘Athlete’.
The following year he won further acclaim with the critical and public success of what is now his most famous work, ‘The Sin’. Also in 1893, Stuck was awarded a gold medal for painting at the Chicago World’s Fair and was appointed to a royal professorship.
In 1895 he began teaching painting at the Munich Academy.In 1897 Stuck married an American widow, Mary Lindpainter, and began work designing his own residence and studio, the Villa Stuck.
His designs for the villa included everything from layout to interior decorations; for his furniture Stuck received another gold medal at the 1900 Paris World Exposition.
Having attained a high degree of fame by this time, Stuck was elevated to the aristocracy on December 9, 1905 and would receive further public honours from around Europe during the remainder of his life.
Even as new trends in art left Stuck behind, he continued to be highly respected among young artists in his capacity as professor at the Munich Academy.
Notable students of his over the years include Paul Klee, Hans Purrmann, Wassily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers.
Franz von Stuck died in 1928.

‘SELF  PORTRAIT’
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)

‘CRUCIFIXION’
Franz  von  Stuck  –  (1844-1916)

‘AMOR’
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)

‘NUDE  BOY  WITH  A  SWORD’
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)

‘REITENDE  AMAZON’  –  (Equestrian Amazon)
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)

‘MEDUSA’
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)

‘FIGHTING AMAZON’
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)




‘DIE SÜNDE’ – 1893
(The Sin)
Franz von Stuck – (1863 – 1928)

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DIE WALKÜRE

(The Valkyrie)
Alexander Rothaug (1870 – 1946)

At The Pond
Alexander Rothaug (1870 – 1946)

Alexander Rothaug (1870 Vienna – 1946 Vienna) was a very well known Austrian painter, stage designer, illustrator and graphic artist who was active during the late 19th – early 20th century.
In 1885-1892 he studied at the Vienna Academy and later in Munich. Rothaug began exhibiting around the year 1900 in Munich where he worked for a few years as an illustrator of the magazine “Fliegende Blaetter”.
In ca. 1910 he moved back to Vienna.
Rothaug was strongly influenced by the works of Franz von Stuck.




‘EUROPA UND DER STIER’
(Europa and the Bull)
Alexander Rothaug

In Greek mythology Europa was a Phoenician woman of high lineage, from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken.
The name Europa occurs in Hesiod’s long list of daughters of primordial Oceanus and Tethys.
The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story; as Kerényi points out “most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses. This can especially be said of the story of Europa”.
The daughter of the earth-giant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon was also named Europa.
Europa’s earliest literary reference is in the Iliad, which is commonly dated to the 8th century BC. Another early reference to her is in a fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, discovered at Oxyrhynchus.



 ‘DIE KORALLENETTE’
(The Coral Chain)
Wilhelm Gallhof

Wilhelm Gallhof (1878 at Iserlohn – died in Action 1918) was a German artist who studied in Munich, Karlsruhe, and with Lovis Corinth in Berlin.
He worked in Weimar and Paris and was represented in many national and international exhibitions.
As a sculptor and graphic artist, he was equally successful and brilliant as a painter.
A reproduction of ‘Die Korallenkette’ appeared as a full page display in the German Magazine: Jugend (Youth), 1917, Volume II, No. 42, page 824/825).
‘GEBURT DER VENUS
(Birth of Venus)
Alexander Frenz – (1861 – 1941)
‘FEMALE NUDE’
Leopold Schmutzler 
‘GIRL WITH SUNFLOWER’
Karl Truppe

‘FEMALE NUDE IN THE OCEAN’
Karl Truppe

‘STUDY  OF  A  NUDE  BOY’
Gottlob Wilhelm – (1867 – 1925)

“NUDE  BOY’
Sascha  Schneider – (1870 – 1927)
Rudolph Karl Alexander Schneider, commonly known as Sascha Schneider (21 September 1870 – 1927), was a German painter and sculptor.Schneider was born in Saint Petersburg.
In 1881, during his childhood, his family moved to Zürich.
After the death of his father, Schneider lived in Dresden, where he was a student at the Kreuzgymnasium. He studied art at Dresdner Kunstakademie beginning in 1889.
In 1903 he met best-selling author Karl May, and he became the cover illustrator of May’s books (for example Winnetou, Old Surehand, Am Rio de la Plata).
When the First World War started, Schneider took up residence in Hellerau (near Leipzig).
After 1918, he co-founded an institute called Kraft-Kunst for body building.
Some of the models for his art works trained here.
Schneider, who suffered from diabetes mellitus, collapsed and died in 1927 in Swinemünde.
He was buried in the cemetery in Loschwitz, Germany.

‘DAS  GEFÜL  DER ABHÄNGIGKEIT’
(THE  FEELING  OF  DEPENDANCE) – 1920
Sascha Schneider – (1870 – 1927)

‘ZWEI  BADENDE  KNABEN’
Hans Wohrab – (1905-1978)



‘KNABENAKT IM ATELIER’
(Nude Boy in Studio)
William Frederick George Pape (1859-1920)

William Pape (1859-1920) was a pupil of Herman Prell in Berlin, J. Lerebver and Benjamin Constant in Paris during the latter part of the 19th century.
He spent his career as an historical painter and illustrator.




‘RECLINING  EPHEBE’
(Knabenakt – Nude Boy)
Andreas Bach (1886-1963)




‘MALE NUDE STUDY’
Andreas Bach (1886-1963)




‘STEHENDER NACKTER JUNGLING’
(Standing Nude Male Youth)
Theodor Krause (1868-1956)






 ‘BADENDE AM TEICH’
(Bathers at the Pond) – 1925
Martin Nicolaus (1870-1945)



‘DAS GOLDENE TOR’
(The Golden Gate) – 1913
 Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)






‘DAS HEILIGE FEUER’
(Sacred Fire) – 1921
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





‘DER TEMPEL DES SCHWEIGENS’
(The Temple of Scilence)
 Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





 ‘ERDE UND SONNE – HIMMEL UND ERDE – BALDUR UND GERDA’
(Earth and the Sun Heaven and Earth – Baldur and Gerda) – 1921
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)


‘SCHICKSAL’
(Fate) 1917
 Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)






‘DIE HEILIGE STUNDE’
(The Holy Hour) – 1918 
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)






 ‘ODIN’ (Allvater) – 1906
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)






‘SELF PORTRAIT’
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)


‘TOD DER BRUNHILDE’
Claudia Krieghoff Fraatz 



GOLGOTHA – (1933)
Johann Kluska – (1904 – 1973)

(digitally restored – the original paint surface is badly damaged)

 ‘DER SIEGER’
(The Victor) – 1897
Heinrich Carl Baucke (1875-1915)

__________________________________________________

F I N E   A R T of the THIRD REICH



‘French Farm-house’ – Adolf Hitler
Kirche in Ardoye in Flandern’ – Adolf Hitler

‘Zeichnung Hund’ – Adolf Hitler




‘Karl’s Church in Winter’ – Adolf Hitler



‘BAUERNFAMILIE’  – (Farming Family)
Adolf  Wissel

‘ERBHOFBAUER’
(Farmstead Peasant)


Leopold Schmutzler – ‘Working Maidens’




‘TWO BOYS IN A SAILBOAT’
(Summer Scene)
Craigher



‘DIE RAST DER DIANA’ – (DIANA’S  REST) – 1940
Ivo  Saliger – 1894 – 1987
Ivo Saliger was known both for his original etchings and paintings.
He moved to Vienna in 1908 and studied painting and etching techniques at the Academy of Vienna, under some of Austria’s finest artists such as Rudolf Jettmar, Ludwig Michalek and Ferdinand Schmutzer.
Saliger completed his studies at the Academie Moderne, in Paris.
He returned to Vienna in 1920 to assume the post of professor of art at the Academy.
During the 1920’s and 1930’s, Ivo Saliger developed strong Art Deco elements within his art.
When German soldiers marched into Austria, Saliger, like so many other artists, began to paint images in support of the Third Reich.
His paintings were frequently exhibited at the ‘Great German Art Exhibition’ held annually in Munich between 1937 and 1944.
After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Saliger continued to paint until his death in 1987.

‘EINKLANG’ – (HARMONY) – 1941
Ivo  Saliger – 1894 – 1987

‘THE  FOUR  ELEMENTS’
Adolf  Ziegler  –  (1892-1959)
Adolf Ziegler (Bremen, 16 October 1892 – Varnhalt, today Baden-Baden, 18 September 1959) was a German painter and politician.
He was tasked by the Nazi Party to oversee the purging of “Degenerate art”, made by most of the German modern artists. He was the favoured painter of Hitler.
Hitler commented that Ziegler’s work was akin to that of perfection.
After 1945  Ziegler was unable to revive his career, and he lived quietly in the village of Varnhalt near Baden-Baden for the last years of his life.
He died in September 1959, at the age of sixty-seven.

THE  FOUR  SEASONS  ‘IN  SITU’  –  ADOLF  HITLER’S  STUDY
‘EVA BRAUN’
(Nude Study – Artist Unknown)



click here for more information about Eva Braun – 
her biography and rare photos

‘DIE  HALSKETTE’  –  (The Necklace)  –  1942
Sepp Hilz

‘BAUERLICHE  VENUS’  –  (Peasant Venus)  –  1939
Sepp Hilz  –  (1906-1967)
Sepp Hilz was born in  Northern Bavaria on October 22, 1906.
Sepp began his work as a painter in his studio in Munich working mainly for regional exhibitions and displays and continued to copy the works of the great Flemish painters like Rembrandt, Vermeer, van Delft and Brouwer.  Until the end of the 1920’s Sepp dedicated himself to his studies and paintings of churches in the Upper Bavarian country.In 1928, he went back to his native town to work for his father again.  He married Erika von Satzenhoven who, after a year, presented him with a son they called Benno.
Together with other artists, he became the inspirer of the cultural life of Bad Aibling with his paintings in bauernmalerei style.
Starting in 1930 Hilz painted many rural scenes in the style of Wilhelm Leibl (a German painter 1844-1900) which not only earned him the name “Bauernmaler” (the painter of peasants).From 1938 to 1944 he presented twenty-two works at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst and at the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung , amongst which was exhibited the famous triptych“Bäuerliche Trilogie” in 1941. After the war, Hilz, notwithstanding the many difficulties, goes back to work and restores the paintings in the churches of  Schäflarn, Schlehdorf am Kochelsee, Obholting, Baumburg (the cloister of the church Altenmarkt an der Alz) and the Franciscan church of Bad Tölz.Sepp Hilz died in Bad Aibling on September 30, 1967 – five months before his second wife’s death.

‘EITELKEIT’  –  (Vanity)  –  1940
Sepp Hilz

Sepp Hilz

‘DER FÜHRER SPRICHT’
Paul Matthias Padua


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1936 Berlin Olympic Games

(‘I CALL ON THE YOUTH OF THE WORLD’)

THE  XI  OLYMPIAD
“German sport has only one task: to strengthen the character of the German people, imbuing it with the fighting spirit and steadfast camaraderie necessary in the struggle for its existence.”

— Minister of Propaganda Dr. Joseph Goebbels


The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany.
Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the NSDAP came to power).


It marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games.
The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Then, Athens and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, respectively.

To outdo the Los Angeles, USA games of 1932, the Nazis built a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium, six gymnasiums, and many other smaller arenas.

They also installed a closed-circuit television system and radio network that reached 41 countries, with many other forms of expensive high-tech electronic equipment.

Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, a favorite of Adolf Hitler, was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million.
Her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports.
Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy.
Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million marks. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin (which issued an itemized report detailing its costs of 16.5 million marks) or outlays of the German national government (which did not make its costs public, but is estimated to have spent US$30 million, chiefly in capital outlays).
Host City Selection

The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting their votes for their favorite host city.

The vote occurred in 1931 during the Weimar Republic era, before Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933. There were many other cities around the world that wanted to host this Summer Olympics, but they did not receive any IOC votes.
The other cities competing to hold the games were: Alexandria, Barcelona, Buenos Aires, Cologne, Dublin, Frankfurt, Helsinki, Lausanne, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro, and Rome.
Academics cannot agree whether the IOC during this period was a willing collaborator or an organization that favored the aesthetics of fascist governments.
Although the IOC was insulated from the reality of Nazism, elements of Hitler’s regime were in parallel alignment with the sporting ideologies of the IOC.
The next scheduled games in 1940 were awarded to Tokyo even though Japan was becoming an aggressive militaristic, nationalist state.
Ironically in 1938 the Japanese rejected hosting the games because they saw the Olympics and its pacifist values as ‘an effete form of European culture’.

The Olympic village was located at Estal in Wustermark, (at 52°32′10.78″N 13°0′33.20″E), on the western edge of Berlin.
The site, which was 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the center of the city, consisted of one to two floor dormitories, dining areas, a swimming pool, and training facilities.
During the Second World War, it was used as a hospital for injured Wehrmacht soldiers. In 1945 it was taken over by the Soviet Union and became a torture and interrogation center for SMERSH.
Recent efforts have been made to restore parts of the former village, but to no avail. 


Influence of Nazi Ideologies

Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL), the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organization of the Olympics.

Hans von Tschammer und Osten (25 October 1887 in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony – 25 March 1943) was a German sport official, SA leader and a member of the Reichstag. He was married to Sophie Margarethe von Carlowitz.
The Summer Olympics in Berlin were held during von Tschammer’s tenure as Reichssportführer. He played a major role in the structure and organization of the Olympic Games together with Carl Diem, who was the former secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA). Von Tschammer trusted the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen to Karl Ritter von Halt, whom he named President of the Committee for the organization of the games.

He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he also believed that sports was a ‘way to weed out the weak.’

Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organisation of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office.

Carl Diem (1882-1962) — a highly respected sports official before, during, and after the Nazi Government — “he was an avid athlete as a young man. Denigrating the value of his country’s powerful but archaic Turner Sport Movement, an institution entrenched in the Fatherland for over a century, Diem became a dedicated enthusiast and advocator of a German sporting movement parallel to those developing rapidly in fin du siecle Anglo-Saxon nations. Diem followed a career path in teaching and sport administration, rising rapidly to head what became known as the German National Sports University, founded in Berlin in 1920.”

He had a long association with Germany’s Olympic movement. He was the 30-year-old captain of the German team at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics, and, like Theodor Lewald, appointed to the 1916 organizing committee. Diem, “though generally staying in the background, did more than anyone else in the Reich during the first half of the twentieth century to advance German sports and German Olympic ambitions.”
In 1936, he became the General-Secretary of the Berlin Organisationskomittee. His “inspired contributions” to the Berlin Games included the Iron Bell with the words, ‘Ich rufe die Jugend der Welt‘ (I call on the youth of the world); Olympische Jugend (Olympic Youth), a five-act pageant of dances at the opening ceremonies; and, the torch lighting in Olympia and relay to Berlin. Diem described the Berlin Games as an event for Germany to lead “a victory charge for a better Europe.”

THE OLYMPIC TORCH RELAY
The media in the United Kingdom was saturated before the London Games began with reports and images of the ‘Olympic Torch’.

Strangely, no mention was made of the origins of the Olympic Torch Relay – although there has been a suggestion that it has ‘deep’ and ‘mystic’ origins in ‘democratic’ ancient Greece.
In fact the first Olympic Torch Relay was instituted by Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL), the Reich Sports Office,
The Olympic Flame was used for the third time at these Games, but this marked the first time it was kindled in Olympia, Greece, and then brought to the Olympic Stadium by a torch relay.
The National Socialists concocted a ‘quasi-religious’ ceremony at Olympia, which involved a torch being kindled by the rays of the sun at the hands of ‘so-called’ priestesses of Apollo (why not Zeus as he was the patron god of Olympia).

For the Nazis the sun, which was represented by the swastika was, the source of creativity and life, and flames kindled by the sun’s rays were equally symbolic of the creativity and life of the Aryan race – the ancient Greeks, of course, being considered Aryans par-exellence.
This also explains why the Nazis were so enamoured with torchlight processions, and flaming cauldrons.
For the Games of the XI Olympiad a beautiful torch was designed, bearing the olympic rings and a map of the torch relay etched onto the handle.
In the Olympic stadium in Berlin a huge bronze ‘cauldron’ was created.
This cauldrom was lit at the comencement of the Games, and was ceremoniously extinguished on the last night of the Games, and this custom has been continued ever since.
So, the modern ‘Olympics’ is centred round a Völkisch ceremony of Aryan Sun worship – with no connection to the ancient Greeks.

History

The games were the first to have live television coverage.
The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station.
The Olympic Flame was used for the third time at these games, but this marked the first time it was brought to the Olympic Village by a torch relay, with the starting point in Olympia, Greece (see above)

The Republic of China’s Three Principles of the People was chosen as the best national anthem of the games.
The official book of the 1936 Olympics is present in many libraries containing the signatures of all gold medalists.

Notable Achievements

Germany had a prosperous year in the equestrian events, winning individual and team gold in all three disciplines, as well as individual silver in dressage.
In the cycling match sprint finals, the German Toni Merkens fouled Arie van Vliet of the Netherlands. Instead of being disqualified, he was fined 100 marks and kept his gold. German gymnasts Konrad Frey and Alfred Schwarzmann both won three gold medals.
Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events.
His German competitor Luz Long offered Owens advice after he almost failed to qualify in the long jump and was posthumously awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship. Mack Robinson, brother to Jackie Robinson won the 200 meter sprint silver medal behind Owens by .04 seconds.
Although he did not medal, future American war hero Louis Zamperini, lagging behind in the 5,000 meter final, made up ground by clocking a 56-second final lap.
This effort caught the attention of Adolf Hitler who personally commended Zamperini on his speed. In one of the most dramatic 800 meter races in history, American John Woodruff won gold after slowing to jogging speed in the middle of the final in order to free himself from being boxed in.
Glenn Edgar Morris, a farm boy from Colorado, won Gold in the Decathlon. Rower Jack Beresford won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal.
The U.S. eight-man rowing team from the University of Washington won the gold medal, coming from behind to defeat the Germans and Italians with Adolf Hitler in attendance.
In the marathon two Korean athletes won medals – Sohn Kee-chung (gold) and Nam Sung-yong (bronze) – running for Japan and under Japanese names; Japan had annexed Korea in 1910. British India won the gold medal in the field hockey event once again (they won the gold in all Olympics from 1928 to 1956), defeating Germany 8–1 in the final, however, Indians were considered Indo-Aryans by the Germans and there was no controversy regarding their victory. Rie Mastenbroek of the Netherlands won three gold medals and a silver in swimming.
Estonia’s Kristjan Palusalu won two gold medals in Men’s Wrestling, marking the last time Estonia competed as an independent nation in the Olympics until 1992.
After winning the middleweight class, the Egyptian weightlifter Khadr El Touni continued to compete for another 45 minutes, finally exceeding the total of the German silver medalist by 35 kg.
The 20-year-old El Touni lifted a total of 387.5 kg crushing two German world champions, El Touni broke the then Olympic and world records, while the German lifted 352.5 kg.
Furthermore, El Touni had lifted 15 kg more than the heavyweight gold medalist, a feat only El Touni has accomplished.
El Touni’s new world records stood for 13 years.
Fascinated by El Touni’s performance, Adolf Hitler rushed down to greet this human miracle. Prior to the competition, Hitler was said to have been sure that Rudolf Ismayr and Adolf Wagner would embarrass all other opponents.
Hitler was so impressed by El Touni’s domination in the middleweight class that he ordered a street named after him in Berlin olympic village.
The Egyptian held the No. 1 position on the IWF list of history’s 50 greatest weightlifters for 60 years, until the 1996 Games in Atlanta where Turkey’s Naim Süleymanoğlu surpassed him to top the list.
Italy’s football team continued their dominance under legendary head coach Vittorio Pozzo, winning the gold medal in these Olympics between their two consecutive World Cup victories (1934 and 1938).
Much like the successes of German athletes, this triumph was claimed by supporters of Benito Mussolini’s regime as a vindication of the superiority of the fascist system.
Austria won the silver; a controversial win after Hitler called for a rematch of the quarterfinals match to discount Peru’s 4–2 win over Austria.
The Peruvian national Olympic team refused to play the match again and withdrew from the games. In the quarter-finals of the football tournament, Peru beat Austria 4–2 in extra-time. Peru rallied from a two-goal deficit in the final 15 minutes of normal time.
During extra-time, Peruvian fans allegedly ran onto the field and attacked an Austrian player. In the chaos, Peru scored twice and won, 4–2.
However, Austria protested and the International Olympic Committee ordered a replay without any spectators.
The Peruvian government refused and their entire Olympic squad left in protest as did Colombia.

Leni Riefenstahl – Olympia 36

In 1936, Hitler invited Riefenstahl to film the Olympic Games in Berlin, a film which Riefenstahl claimed had been commissioned by the International Olympic Committee.
She also went to Greece to take footage of the games’ original site at Olympia, where she was aided by Greek photographer Nelly, along with route of the inaugural torch relay.
This material became Olympia, a successful film which has since been widely noted for its technical and aesthetic achievements.
She was one of the first filmmakers to use tracking shots in a documentary, placing a camera on rails to follow the athletes’ movement, and she is noted for the slow motion shots included in the film.

Riefenstahl’s work on Olympia has been cited as a major influence in modern sports photography.
Riefenstahl filmed competitors of all races, including African-American Jesse Owens in what would later become famous footage.

Olympia was very successful in Germany after it premiered for Hitler’s 49th birthday in 1938, and its international debut led Riefenstahl to embark on an American publicity tour in an attempt to secure commercial release.
The film was released in two parts: ‘Olympia 1. Teil — Fest der Völker’ (Festival of Nations) and ‘Olympia 2. Teil — Fest der Schönheit’ (Festival of Beauty).
In 1937, Riefenstahl told a reporter for the Detroit News:
To me, Hitler is the greatest man who ever lived. He truly is without fault, so simple and at the same time possessed of masculine strength“.

She arrived in New York City in November 1938, five days before Kristallnacht, or ‘night of broken glass’; when news of the event reached America, Riefenstahl maintained that Hitler was innocent.
On 18 November, she was received by Henry Ford in Detroit and Olympia was shown at “The Chicago Engineers Club” two days later.
Avery Brundage stated that it was “The greatest Olympic film ever made” and Riefenstahl left for Hollywood, where she was received by the German Consul Georg Gyssling, on 24 November. She negotiated with Louis B. Mayer and on 8 December, Walt Disney brought her on a three-hour tour showing her the on-going production of Fantasia.

After the Goebbels Diaries surfaced, researchers learned that Riefenstahl had been friendly with Joseph Goebbels and his wife, Magda, attending the opera with them and coming to the Goebbels’ parties, however, Riefenstahl maintained that Goebbels was upset that she had rejected his advances and was jealous of her influence on Hitler, seeing her as an internal threat; therefore, his diaries could not be trusted.
By later accounts, Goebbels thought highly of Riefenstahl’s filmmaking but was angered with what he saw as her overspending on the Nazi-provided filmmaking budgets.

LENI RIEFENSTAHL was born in Berlin in 1902.
She studied painting and started her artistic career as a dancer.
She became already so famous after her first dance hat Max Reinhardt engaged her for the ‘Deutsches Theater’.
An injury of the knee put an end to her sensational career. 

After that, she became famous as an actress, a film director, a film producer and a film reporter.
She also became world-renowned as an actress in the films ‘Der heilige Berg’ (The Holy Mountain) (1926), ‘Der große Sprung’ (The Great Leap) (1927), ‘Die weiße Hölle vom Piz Palü’ (The White Hell of Piz Palü) (1929), ‘Stürme über dem Mont Blanc’ (Storms Over Mont Blanc) (1930), ‘Der weiße Rausch’ (The White Noise) (1931), ‘Das Blaue Licht’ (The Blue Light) (1932) and ‘SOS Eisberg’ (1933).

Her greatest success she made with the documentary film ‘Triumph des Willens’ (The Triumph of the Will) named after the Reich Party Congress 1934 in Nuremberg which got the highest awards: The gold medal in Venice in 1935 and the gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1937, however, at the end of the war this film destroyed Leni Riefenstahl’s career, for now it had no longer been recognized as a piece of art but been condemned as a National Socialist propaganda film.
Her world-famous film about the Olympic games was equally well received.
That film included two parts, part I ‘Fest der Völker’ (Festival of the Nations) and part 2 ‘Fest der Schönheit’ , (Festival of Beauty) and did also get the highest awards: the gold medal in Paris in 1937, the first price in Venice as the world’s best film in 1938, the Olympic Award by the IOC in 1939, and in 1956 it had been classified as one of the world’s best ten films.

                    

OLYMPIA GLOCKE
(The Olympic Bell)


Many of the traditions of the modern ‘Olympic’ Games originated with the 1936 Berlin Olympics – which is probably not surprising as the Nazis were masters of propaganda and spectacle.
The Logo of the Berlin Olympics was the ‘Olympia Glocke’ – the Olympic Bell – to be tolled at the opening and closing of the Games.
Interestingly, one of the ‘secrets’ of the London 2012 Games, revealed at the opening ceremony, was a huge bell (see right), tolled as the games were opened.
The Original ‘Olympia Glocke’ survived the 1939-1945 war, and still exists, and can be seen outside the Berlin ‘Olympic Stadium’.